Dr. Kevin Yip

Dr Kevin Yip
Orthopaedic Surgeon
MBBS(UK), FRCS(EDIN), FAM(SING), FHKCOS(ORTHO)

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Passive extension

Positioning
The subject stands with the arm outstretched. The examiner stands level with the
subject’S elbow. One hand stabilizes the elbow,and the other hand grasps the distal forearm.


Procedure:

• To test the range: move hands in opposite directions – distal hand downwards and proximal hand upwards.
• To test the end-feel: bring the subject’s elbow into slight flexion and move hands abruptly but gently in opposite directions towards extension.

Common mistakes.
The elbow is not in complete supination.

Normal functional anatomy:
• Rnllge: generally 0° in the male; in female subjects and in hypermobile persons
overextension of a few degrees may be possible
• Ellrl-feel: hard stop of bone engaging with bone
• Limitiug structures:

– bony contact between the olecranon process and olecranon fossa
– tension in the anterior part of the joint capsule.

Common pathological situations:

• A painful limitation occurs in arthritis of the elbow joint and also when a loose body is present in the posterior part of the joint.
• A painless limitation is present in uncomplicated arthrosis.

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