Dr. Kevin Yip

Dr Kevin Yip
Orthopaedic Surgeon

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Resisted flexion of the elbow


The subject stands with the arm alongside the body, the elbow bent to a right angle and the forearm in full supination. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hand.One hand is on top of the shoulder and the other on the distal aspect of the forearm.

Resist the subject’s attempt to flex her elbow.

Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle lunction:
• importallt i”terHal rotators:
– Subscapularis
– Pectoralis major
– Latissimus dorsi
– Teres major
• Less importallt illternal rotators:
– Long head of biceps brachii
– Clavicular part of deltoid

Common mistakes:

• The subject shrugs up the shoulder in the
hope of exerting more strength.
• Movement is allowed at the elbow.
• In strong subjects, flexion cannot sufficiently be resisted if the resistance is not given perpendicular to the subject’s forearm.

Anatomical structures tested:.

Muscle function:
• Imporlalll flexors:
– Brachialis
– Biceps brachii
• Less important flexor:
– Brachioradialis.

Common pathological situations:

• Pain in the region of the shoulder occurs when a lesion is present in either the long head or the short head of biceps.
• Weakness is the result of either a C5 or a C6 nerve root lesion.

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