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Wrist Sprain


Description A wrist sprain is an injury to the bones and ligaments of the wrist that results in pain from an incomplete ligament tear. No associated long-term disability Because many serious injuries are easily confused with wrist sprains, the patient with substantial swelling or persistent pain should be suspected of having a more serious […]

Vertical Talus


Description Congenital vertical talus is an uncommon disorder, a rigid flatfoot that requires early identification and treatment. Its essence is a dislocation of the talonavicular joint with associated adaptive changes. It may be unilateral or bilateral. >1/2 of affected patients have other neurologic, genetic, or connective tissue disorders. The deformity occurs in utero, but […]

Vertebral Osteomyelitis


Description Infection of the vertebral bony elements, not including the disc space General Prevention Prevention of HIV and hepatitis Early treatment of hematogenous infection Postoperative wound care, including dressing changes and prophylactic postsurgical antibiotics Epidemiology Bimodal distribution: Small peak in youth (10-20 years old) Largest peak in adults >50 years old Increasing rates in […]

Unicameral Bone Cyst


Description A benign membrane-lined, fluid-filled lesion of bone that develops in childhood and fills in by maturity Location: 80% occur in the proximal humerus and proximal femur. Other, less common, areas are the proximal tibia, distal tibia, distal femur, calcaneus, distal humerus, radius, fibula, ilium, ulna, and rib. Usually centrally located adjacent to the […]

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear


Description The TFCC: A group of ligaments and cartilaginous structures that stabilize the distal radioulnar joint during pronation and supination of the forearm Extends from the ulnar styloid to the sigmoid notch of the distal radius Central portion: More cartilaginous than its periphery Acts as a meniscal homolog, similar to the menisci of the […]



Description A limitation of motion of the cervical spine that causes the head to be held in a tilted position May result from muscular, skeletal, or neurologic abnormalities (Fig. 1) Classification : Congenital abnormalities Acquired abnormalities Synonyms: Skeletal wry neck; Congenital wry neck; Cock-robin deformity; Sandifer syndrome (torticollis resulting from gastroesophageal reflux disease and […]

Toe Walking


Description Idiopathic toe walking in toddlers is common. Most commonly caused by a shortened Achilles tendon Some of these children eventually adopt normal walking patterns with growth. Persistent and exclusive toe walking beyond 3 years of age should prompt an examination for underlying neuromuscular problems. However, most children have what is termed, by exclusion, […]

Tibial Shaft Fracture


Description A fracture of the diaphysis (usually midportion) of the tibia Classification: Fractures are classified by the amount of comminution and the position of the fracture. The AO system can be used to describe the fracture further. Open fractures are classified by the system of Gustilo and Anderson. Epidemiology Can occur in any age […]

Tibial Plateau Fracture


Description The tibial plateau is the proximal weightbearing surface of the tibia. Articulates with the femoral condyles to form the knee joint Can be divided into medial and lateral components A tibial plateau fracture is any fracture involving the proximal articular surface of the tibia (Fig. 1). Classification by Schatzker et al. : Type […]

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Basics Description TOS is a group of signs and symptoms that result from compression of the neurovascular supply to the upper limb in the supraclavicular area and shoulder girdle . Synonyms: Scalene anticus syndrome; Costoclavicular syndrome; Hyperabduction syndrome; Cervical rib syndrome; Droopy shoulder syndrome Epidemiology Incidence Incidence unknown Condition not common Prevalence Most common […]