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Tibial Shaft Fracture


Description A fracture of the diaphysis (usually midportion) of the tibia Classification: Fractures are classified by the amount of comminution and the position of the fracture. The AO system can be used to describe the fracture further. Open fractures are classified by the system of Gustilo and Anderson. Epidemiology Can occur in any age […]

Tibial Plateau Fracture


Description The tibial plateau is the proximal weightbearing surface of the tibia. Articulates with the femoral condyles to form the knee joint Can be divided into medial and lateral components A tibial plateau fracture is any fracture involving the proximal articular surface of the tibia (Fig. 1). Classification by Schatzker et al. : Type […]

ThoracoLumbar Spine Fracture and Dislocation


Description Most spine fractures occur in the thoracolumbar region. TL1 is the most frequently injured area. Concomitant spine injuries are present in up to 15% of patients. Associated abdominal injuries are present in ~20% of patients. The Denis 3-column classification (1,2) is the system most commonly used to describe thoracolumbar fractures. Divides the thoracolumbar […]

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Basics Description TOS is a group of signs and symptoms that result from compression of the neurovascular supply to the upper limb in the supraclavicular area and shoulder girdle . Synonyms: Scalene anticus syndrome; Costoclavicular syndrome; Hyperabduction syndrome; Cervical rib syndrome; Droopy shoulder syndrome Epidemiology Incidence Incidence unknown Condition not common Prevalence Most common […]

Thoracic Disc Herniation

Basics Description Thoracic disc herniation is a difficult condition to diagnose and treat given its vague symptoms, which are often similar to those of other conditions. These difficulties are compounded by the fact that a high prevalence occurs of asymptomatic thoracic disc abnormalities and herniation. Epidemiology Symptomatic thoracic disc disease most commonly occurs in […]

Tennis Elbow

Basics Description Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a tendinopathy of the origin of the ECRB tendon. The lateral epicondyle is the origin of the common wrist extensor tendon, including: ECRL ECRB Extensor digitorum communis Extensor carpi ulnaris The ECRB lies beneath the ECRL. These extensors stabilize the wrist and are used in sports (such […]

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Tarsal tunnel syndrome is entrapment of the tibial nerve or its distal branches caused by compression or traction as the nerve courses through the tarsal tunnel. Anatomy : Proximal tarsal tunnel: Fibro-osseous space that contains (from anterior to posterior) the PTT, flexor digitorum longus tendon, posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve, […]

Talus Fracture

Basics Description The talus, a small bone in the hindfoot: Articulates with the calcaneus and the remainder of the midfoot bones Supports the body’s weight and distributes the body’s forces to the foot Is critical to proper function of the foot Is covered (~60%) with articular cartilage Is vascularly supplied by vessels through a […]


Basics Description Webbed fingers (or toes) , usually detected at birth Classification: Internal involvement: Simple (skin only) versus complex (bony involvement/fusion) Extent of syndactyly: Complete (entire length of digits involved) versus incomplete (some part of fingers joined) Synonym: Webbed digits Epidemiology More common in Caucasian males Incidence Syndactyly occurs per ~1 per 2,000 births […]

Subtrochanteric Fracture

Basics Description By definition, subtrochanteric hip fractures (or, simply, subtrochanteric fractures) extend into the region between the lesser trochanter and a point 5 cm distally. Classification: Multiple systems exist, but prognostically the most critical factor is fracture stability, which is based on the degrees of comminution of the medial and posteromedial cortex. The Russell […]