Specialists

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Talus Fracture

Basics Description The talus, a small bone in the hindfoot: Articulates with the calcaneus and the remainder of the midfoot bones Supports the body’s weight and distributes the body’s forces to the foot Is critical to proper function of the foot Is covered (~60%) with articular cartilage Is vascularly supplied by vessels through a […]

Knee Examination in the Child

Basics Description It is important, during a knee examination, to keep in mind the child’s age and to understand the age-specific pediatric knee disorders. Congenital hyperextension or dislocation of the knee: Varies from simple hyperextension to anterior dislocation of the tibia on the femur Hyperextended knee presents at birth. A hyperextensible knee resolves spontaneously, […]

Unicameral Bone Cyst

Basics

Description A benign membrane-lined, fluid-filled lesion of bone that develops in childhood and fills in by maturity Location: 80% occur in the proximal humerus and proximal femur. Other, less common, areas are the proximal tibia, distal tibia, distal femur, calcaneus, distal humerus, radius, fibula, ilium, ulna, and rib. Usually centrally located adjacent to the […]

Toe Walking

Basics

Toe walking is a walking pattern in which a child walks on balls of his feet, with no contact between the heels & ground.

Description Idiopathic toe walking in toddlers is common. Most commonly caused by a shortened Achilles tendon Some of these children eventually adopt normal walking patterns with growth. Persistent and exclusive […]

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Basics Description TOS is a group of signs and symptoms that result from compression of the neurovascular supply to the upper limb in the supraclavicular area and shoulder girdle . Synonyms: Scalene anticus syndrome; Costoclavicular syndrome; Hyperabduction syndrome; Cervical rib syndrome; Droopy shoulder syndrome Epidemiology Incidence Incidence unknown Condition not common Prevalence Most common […]

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Tarsal tunnel syndrome is entrapment of the tibial nerve or its distal branches caused by compression or traction as the nerve courses through the tarsal tunnel. Anatomy : Proximal tarsal tunnel: Fibro-osseous space that contains (from anterior to posterior) the PTT, flexor digitorum longus tendon, posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve, […]

Spondylolisthesis

Basics Description Spondylolisthesis is an abnormal AP translation of 2 vertebral bodies relative to each other. This translation is secondary to a defect in the pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) or the posterior ligamentous-bony restraints. Spondylolisthesis is classified by type (Table 1) and by the severity of the slip (Table 2). General Prevention No preventive measures […]

Shoulder/Proximal Humerus Fracture

Basics Description The proximal humerus consists of the articular surface of the shoulder joint and the attachments of the rotator cuff to the greater and lesser tuberosities. Most of the blood supply to the humeral head comes from the anterior humeral circumflex branch of the axillary artery. >90% of proximal humeral fractures result from […]

Reactive Arthritis

Basics Description Reactive arthritis (previously called Reiter syndrome) is a form of reactive, inflammatory arthritis classically associated with urogenital, ocular, mucocutaneous, and musculoskeletal involvement. This syndrome is categorized with the group of seronegative arthritides, along with AS, psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis. Diagnosis often is overlooked because of its variable presentation and the similarities […]

Popliteal Cyst in the Child

Basics Description Popliteal cyst is a painless soft-tissue mass in the medial popliteal fossa behind the knee. Epidemiology Most common soft-tissue lesion about the knee in children Affects children 2-14 years old Incidence Incidence decreases after 9 years of age. Prevalence Twice as common in males Risk Factors Most are isolated cases. Juvenile rheumatoid […]