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Respiratory tract

The word ‘cold’ is used in everyday speech to cover a variety of respiratory infections. These are usually transmitted by direct contact or by airborne spread, e.g.when an infected person sneezes.The warning signs of an impending upper respiratory tract infection include feeling feverish, tired, and generally unwell. There may be aches and pains […]

Abdominal injuries

Rupture of the spleen The spleen is located in the upper left part of the abdomen , and its rupture is the most common cause of death among athletes with abdominal injuries. The injury may result from a direct blow to the abdomen, e.g. when a cyclist falls and the handlebar strikes the upper left […]

Chest injuries

Fractured rib Fractured ribs are common, especially in contact sports. They can occur after a direct blow with a blunt object, such as the handle of a stick, or as a result of forceful compression of the chest during a hard body tackle, as in rugby or ice hockey.

Symptoms and diagnosis – Pain is […]