Specialists

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Neuropsychological Testing

Neuropsychological tests are functional cognitive instruments that are used to assess changes in attention, concentration, memory, information-processing speed, and motor speed or coordination. These tests provide a validated means to quantify cognitive weakness, and it is increasingly clear that neuropsychological assessment is a useful tool for measuring both the initial and recovery stages of athletes […]

Head Injuries and Concussion

Key Points

Traumatic events can lead to both primary injuries [e.g., scalp lacerations, intracranial bleeds, skull fractures, concussion, and diffuse axonal injury, (DAI)] and later, secondary injuries (e.g., herniation syndromes, diffuse edema, and hypoxic/ischemic injuries). Initial evaluation and treatment should progress through the ABCs (airway, breathing, and circulation) of trauma resuscitation. Glasgow Coma Scale is […]

Lower extremity training

Proprioceptive balance and agility exercises

One foot balance

Holding on to a stable object (kitchen counter, table), practice balancing on your affected leg with:

– eyes open; – eyes closed; – standing on a book or pillow; – gradually letting go of the support.

Time yourself; try to increase the length of time you are […]

Extreme environments

Preventive measures

Basic physical fitness

Anyone traveling into remote places should first achieve basic physical fitness. A long hike should not be attempted before practicing its unfamiliar aspects, such as carrying a full backpack. Equipment The equipment carried must be carefully chosen to meet the demands of the hike. Shoes should always be well worn-in […]

Insertionitis (Tenoperiostitis)

Attachment of a muscle to bone involves a gradual transition from muscle-tendon to cartilage and from mineralized cartilage to bone. Bone-tendon junctions are poorly supplied with blood because the fibrocartilage creates a ‘barrier’; this may explain why these injuries often take a long time to heal and may become chronic.

Inflammation of the muscle-tendon attachment […]

Peritenonitis (Peritendinitis)

Repetitive one-sided movements or persistent mechanical irritation may cause an inflammatory reaction in the tendon sheath, and a minor inflammatory reaction in the tendon itself. The condition frequently becomes chronic and can be difficult to treat.

Location

The Achilles tendon peritenon is mostly affected, along with the sheath and the tendons of the long head […]

Classification of Tendon Injuries

‘Tendinitis’ has been the clinical term traditionally applied to virtually all painful tendon structures, including the tendon, the synovial sheath, and the adjacent bursa. It has, however, been established that there is only a limited inflammatory response in the tendon to injury. Injuries are most often associated with a degenerative process, which increases with age […]

Myositis

Myositis or muscle inflammation is rare; it mainly affects the muscles of the thigh, back, shoulder, and calf.

Symptoms and diagnosis

The following may suggest a diagnosis of myositis: – pain in the affected muscle group on exertion; – symptoms increasing as effort becomes more intensive and repetitive; – tender, firm areas felt on examination […]

Intermuscular Hematoma

Bleeding may occur between muscles when a muscle fascia and its adjacent blood vessels are damaged. After an initial increase, causing the bleeding to spread, the pressure falls quickly. Typically, bruising and swelling, caused by a collection of blood, appear distally to the damaged area 24–48 hours after the injury, due to gravity. Because there […]

A Patient’s Guide to Joint Injections for Arthritis

Doctors recommend injections of corticosteroids (also commonly known as cortisone) for many arthritis patients. Cortisone is a powerful anti-inflammatory medication that can reduce joint inflammation. Because the medication is injected directly into the joint, the effects of the medication are concentrated on the painful joint. The injected cortisone can bring the inflammation in the joint […]