Knee

Small Proteoglycans of Articular Cartilage

Small proteoglycan molecules consisting of biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin represent approximately 5% of the proteoglycan of articular cartilage. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycans were first observed in articular cartilage by Rosenberg  in 1985. The small proteoglycans each consist of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan chain branches. The core protein of the small proteoglycans is only one fourth …

Small Proteoglycans of Articular Cartilage Read More »

Synovial Thickening

Synovial thickening is a vital clinical finding. It indicates primary inflammation of the synovia and differentiates this from a secondary synovitis. Synovial swelling is best detected at the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, about 2 cm posterior to the medial and lateral edges of the patella. Here the capsule lies almost superficially, covered …

Synovial Thickening Read More »

Specific Tests – Medial Shearing

Table of Contents Significance Positioning Common mistakes Normal functional anatomy Significance This test is used to detect internal derangement at the inner side of the knee. Pain on jerk is suggestive for a minor lesion at the tibial insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament. Positioning The subject lies in the supine position with the knee …

Specific Tests – Medial Shearing Read More »

Palpation of the Popliteal Fossa

The borders of the lozenge-shaped popliteal fossa are formed by the gastrocnemii, the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles. The bottom is formed by the posterior capsule and the popliteus muscle .The popliteal fossa is covered by a fascia. The lozenge is vertically crossed (from lateral to medial) by: the tibial nerve, popliteal …

Palpation of the Popliteal Fossa Read More »

Knee-Bony Landmarks

All palpable bony parts of the knee are situated anteriorly. Palpation is performed with the subject in the supine lying position. The knee is either bent to a right angle or fully extended, depending on the palpated structure. In a flexed position of the knee, the patella can easily be outlined. In this position the …

Knee-Bony Landmarks Read More »

Chondromalacia Patella

Table of Contents Symptoms Aetiology Clinical Findings Investigations Treatment for Chondromalacia Patella in Singapore Referrals Exercise Prescription Evaluation of Treatment Outcomes Differential Diagnoses Prognosis Symptoms There is gradual onset of diffuse exercise-induced pain around the anterior part of the knee. Prolonged sitting or squatting often trigger the symptoms (positive movie sign). Walking down stairs is …

Chondromalacia Patella Read More »

A Patient’s Guide to Viscosupplementation for Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Table of Contents Introduction Anatomy Rationale Preparation Procedure Complications After Care Rehabilitation Introduction The squeaky hinge gets the grease. In the same way, the joint that aches from osteoarthritis (OA) gets the attention. Since the knee works like a hinge joint, it makes sense that lubricating the joint might help people with knee osteoarthritis. Accordingly, …

A Patient’s Guide to Viscosupplementation for Osteoarthritis of the Knee Read More »

× Chat with us for more information