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Literature Review

Patients with chronic low back pain have been found to have specific motor dysfunctions . Hodges and Richardson found that those with a history of low back pain and dysfunction had poor motor control. The local system dysfunction developed after the onset of pain and pathology.

With the occurrence of pain and dysfunction, it is […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Quadratus Lumborum

The quadratus lumborum consists of medial and lateral fibers that are enclosed by the anterior and middle layers of the thoracolumbar fascia. The medial fibers attach “from the ilium to the anterior surface of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and other fibers travel from the transverse processes to anchor onto the twelfth rib.

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Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Internal Oblique

The internal oblique is the largest muscle of the abdominal wall . The internal oblique forms the middle layer of the abdominal wall between the TrA and the external oblique. It originates from the “lateral two-thirds of the inguinal ligament, anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest, and the lateral raphe of the thoracolumbar fascia in […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-External Oblique

The external oblique originates from the inferior border and outer surfaces of the lower eight ribs. It interdigitates with the serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi, with upper, middle, and lower attachments. The upper and middle fibers attach into the abdominal aponeurosis.

The posterior attachments descend to insert on the anterior half of the iliac crest. […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Transversus Abdominis

The TrA is the deepest muscle of the abdominal muscle complex, with the internal and external oblique being more ventral and the rectus abdominis in the center with a fascial envelope encased with a bilaminar aponeurosis. The TrA is the deepest muscle of the abdominal muscle complex, with the internal and external oblique being more […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Thoracolumbar Fascia

The thoracolumbar fascia has three layers—anterior, middle, and posterior—creating an envelope for the muscles of the lumbar spine. The anterior layer originates from the anterior surfaces of the transverse processes of the lumbar spine and intertransverse ligaments, and it covers the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum.

The middle layer is attached to the tips […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Multifidus

The multifidus is the most medial and largest of the paraspinal muscles. It has an origin and insertion of vertebra to vertebra attachments within the lumbar spine and between the lumbar and sacral vertebrae .

The multifidus is composed of repeating fascicles, which originate from the laminae and spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae and […]

Definitions

Panjabi introduced a spinal stability system that includes passive, active, and control subsystems. The passive subsystems involve the osteoarticular and ligamentous components, which provide restraint primarily in the end range of motion. The active subsystems are of great interest in the research and clinical fields for looking at the role of muscle and fascia and […]

Functional Spinal Rehabilitation

Key Points

Low back pain affects up to 80% of the population at least once in their lifetime. The term core stabilization is used to describe the management of low back pain through training of the deep stabilizing muscles of the trunk to protect the spine and to allow improved motor control of the spine. […]