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TAIL BONE PAIN (COCCYDYNIA)

WHAT IS COCCYDYNIA?

Coccydynia is the inflammation of the tip of the tailbone and the pain is often worse on sitting.

HOW IS COCCYDYNIA PAIN DIAGNOSED?

Coccydynia is commonly diagnosed based solely on the symptoms and the examination findings of local tenderness over the tailbone.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?

Coccydynia is often caused by an […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Quadratus Lumborum

The quadratus lumborum consists of medial and lateral fibers that are enclosed by the anterior and middle layers of the thoracolumbar fascia. The medial fibers attach “from the ilium to the anterior surface of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and other fibers travel from the transverse processes to anchor onto the twelfth rib.

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Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Thoracolumbar Fascia

The thoracolumbar fascia has three layers—anterior, middle, and posterior—creating an envelope for the muscles of the lumbar spine. The anterior layer originates from the anterior surfaces of the transverse processes of the lumbar spine and intertransverse ligaments, and it covers the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum.

The middle layer is attached to the tips […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Multifidus

The multifidus is the most medial and largest of the paraspinal muscles. It has an origin and insertion of vertebra to vertebra attachments within the lumbar spine and between the lumbar and sacral vertebrae .

The multifidus is composed of repeating fascicles, which originate from the laminae and spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae and […]