Specialists

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Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis, Lateral Elbow Tendinosis)

Tennis is played by people of all ages, as it is a sport which in general does not produce severe medical problems. Problems do occur, however, in the elbow region. It should be remembered that only 5% of people suffering from tennis elbow relate the injury to tennis. This injury occurs in other racket sports […]

Rupture of the Major Pectoral Muscle

The pectoral muscle has its origin on the anterior chest wall and its insertion on the anterior surface of the upper part of the humerus. Its function is to draw the upper arm towards the chest and to rotate the arm inwards. When it is subjected to a heavy load, the pectoral muscle can tear. […]

Tear and Inflammation of the Deltoid Muscle

Tears of the deltoid muscle, though infrequent, do occur in team handball and volleyball players, American footballers, weightlifters, wrestlers, and other athletes. The muscle is damaged in most cases by direct impact, but it can also be injured by overuse. The tear affects only a small part of the muscle, making it difficult to raise […]

Injury of the Subscapularis Tendon

Injury of the subscapularis tendon

The subscapularis muscle (which originates on the inner surface of the scapula, runs anterior to the shoulder joint, and is inserted high into the anterior aspect of the head of the humerus) is the most important internal rotator of the upper arm. Its tendon can be affected by partial or […]

Complete Tears

Complete rotator cuff tears are classified as follows: 1. A small complete tear such as a puncture wound.

2. A moderate tear that still encompasses only one of the rotator cuff tendons; the tear is usually less than 2 cm (0.8 in) in size, with no retraction of the torn ends.

3. Large complete tear […]

Rotator Cuff Injury

In 75% of cases of shoulder pain, the main source is the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff. The supraspinatus muscle, together with the deltoid, raises the arm to initiate abduction. If there is a complete tear, the athlete cannot hold the arm elevated in the scapular plane between 60° and 120° and has to […]

Subacromial Bursitis

One large bursa in the shoulder is located between the supraspinatus muscle and the deltoid muscle and acromion process of the scapula. In its inflamed state the bursa is about the size of a golf ball. Inflammation of the bursa (subacromial bursitis) commonly occurs.

Causes

– A fall or blow to the shoulder or a […]

Impingement Syndrome

Impingement can be defined as a trapping of the soft tissues in the subacromial space, between the acromion and the humeral head. The entrapment of the soft tissues when moving the shoulder may lead to a painful reaction. Athletes, including tennis players, swimmers, throwers, and weightlifters, who make repetitive movements of the arms above the […]

Glenoid Labrum Tears

Glenoid labrum tears The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilage rim surrounding the articular surface of the glenoid cavity (the socket of the shoulder joint). The labrum contributes to stability by increasing the depth of the glenoid socket. The loss of the glenoid labrum decreases the depth of the socket by 50% in either direction. A […]

Shoulder Instability

It is important to make a distinction between laxity and instability. Shoulder laxity is a translation of the humeral head on the glenoid (socket) in the absence of clinical symptoms or pathologic changes. This means that normal shoulders may be lax without being unstable. When the laxity results in clinical symptoms and is associated with […]