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Peritenonitis (Peritendinitis)

Repetitive one-sided movements or persistent mechanical irritation may cause an inflammatory reaction in the tendon sheath, and a minor inflammatory reaction in the tendon itself. The condition frequently becomes chronic and can be difficult to treat.

Location

The Achilles tendon peritenon is mostly affected, along with the sheath and the tendons of the long head […]

Classification of Tendon Injuries

‘Tendinitis’ has been the clinical term traditionally applied to virtually all painful tendon structures, including the tendon, the synovial sheath, and the adjacent bursa. It has, however, been established that there is only a limited inflammatory response in the tendon to injury. Injuries are most often associated with a degenerative process, which increases with age […]

Ligament injuries

Ligament injuries in athletes are common, particularly around the knee and the ankle. They also occur in the shoulder, elbow, and thumb

Functional anatomy

Ligaments are attached to the two bones that compose the joint . Ligaments provide stability to the joint, while still allowing motion. They cannot actively resist motion, but provide a ‘check […]

Post-Traumatic Shoulder Stiffness

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual onset of diffuse pain or ache, and stiffness in the shoulder after previous trauma or immobilisation. Physiotherapy, after manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic release, improves the condition dramatically. Secondary problems in the neck and upper back are almost inevitable and must be addressed.

AETIOLOGY

This disorder has similar symptoms to frozen […]

Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

SYMPTOMS

There is acute onset of localised swelling and pain over the anterior part of the shoulder with deformation, after an excessive external rotation and abduction trauma. This is the most common type of dislocation in sports (85-90 per cent). Movements of the arm cause pain and the patient will protect the arm in […]

Squeaker’s Wrist

SYMPTOMS

There is exercise-induced pain and crepitation and swelling 6-8 cm proximal to Lister’s tubercle at the wrist.

AETIOLOGY

These symptoms are caused by a peri-tendinous bursitis between the first (abductor pollucis longus, extensor pollucis brevis) and second (extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis) extensor compartments. This condition often affects rowers, […]

Iliopsoas Related Groin Pain

SYMPTOMS

Gradual onset of diffuse or localised exercise-induced groin pain and occasionally lower back pain. A runner often complains that he cannot produce enough force in the stride forwards and a footballer cannot strike a ball properly. This condition can also present as low back pain.

AETIOLOGY

This is secondary pain in the groin […]

Chondromalacia Patella

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual onset of diffuse exercise-induced pain around the anterior part of the knee. Prolonged sitting or squatting often trigger the symptoms (positive movie sign). Walking down stairs is more difficult than up.

AETIOLOGY

Chondromalacia means ‘soft cartilage’. The exact aetiology is unknown. The correct diagnosis must be identified, by arthroscopic probing, […]

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

SYMPTOMS

There is aching or sharp pain around the medial part of the foot and ankle joint, often radiating along the medial or the lateral part of the foot, or towards the plantar fascia insertion.

AETIOLOGY

This syndrome is caused by trapping of the posterior tibia nerve or any of its branches in the tarsal […]