Dictionary

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Basics Description Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting synovial joints and extra-articular systems, including the skin, eyes, cardiovascular system, bronchopulmonary system, spleen, and nervous system. Epidemiology Incidence Affects 1% of the population   Prevalence Variable onset, but most frequently between the ages of 35 and 50 years Females are affected 2-3 …

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Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Basics Description Shoulder pain with overhead activities is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Impingement syndrome: Inflammatory condition of the soft tissues of the subacromial space Most common cause of presentation for shoulder complaints to a physician’s office (>50% of all shoulder complaints) Represents a continuum, progressing from acute bursitis, to chronic bursitis, to partial-thickness tears of …

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Lumbar Disc Herniation

Basics Description Low back pain affects up to 85% of the population at some point in their lives. Low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in patients <50 years old. Herniation of a lumbar disc: 1 of the major causes of acute and chronic lower back pain May be associated with …

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Vertebral Osteomyelitis Treatment in Singapore

Basics Description Infection of the vertebral bony elements, not including the disc space General Prevention Prevention of HIV and hepatitis Early treatment of hematogenous infection Postoperative wound care, including dressing changes and prophylactic postsurgical antibiotics Epidemiology Bimodal distribution: Small peak in youth (10-20 years old) Largest peak in adults >50 years old Increasing rates in …

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Torticollis Treatment in Singapore

Basics Description A limitation of motion of the cervical spine that causes the head to be held in a tilted position May result from muscular, skeletal, or neurologic abnormalities (Fig. 1) Classification : Congenital abnormalities Acquired abnormalities Synonyms: Skeletal wry neck; Congenital wry neck; Cock-robin deformity; Sandifer syndrome (torticollis resulting from gastroesophageal reflux disease and …

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