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Tennis Elbow / Lateral Humeral Epicondylitis


Tennis elbow is characterized by soreness or pain on the outside of the upper arm near the elbow. There may be a partial tear of the tendon fibers which joins the muscle to bone near their point of origin on the outside of the elbow.

HOW IS […]

Resisted extension of the wrist


The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow extended and the wrist in neutral position (between pronation and supination,and between flexion and extension). The examiner stands level with the subject’s elbow. The contralateral arm lifts and carries the elbow and keeps it extended. The hand stabilizes the forearm. The other hand is placed […]

Resisted extension


The subject stands with the arm alongside the body, the elbow flexed to 90° and the forearm in supination. The examiner stands level with the elbow. One hand supports the distal part of the forearm and the other hand is on top of the shoulder.


Resist the subject’s attempt to extend the elbow.


Passive pronation


The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the contralateral hand is placed against the volar part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

Passive extension

Positioning The subject stands with the arm outstretched. The examiner stands level with the subject’S elbow. One hand stabilizes the elbow,and the other hand grasps the distal forearm.


• To test the range: move hands in opposite directions – distal hand downwards and proximal hand upwards. • To test the end-feel: bring […]



Passive flexion

Positioning. The subject stands with the arm outstretched. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm. He places one hand against the back of the shoulder and grasps the distal forearm with the other hand.

Procedure. Bring the hand towards the shoulder,thereby stabilizing the latter, until the movement comes to a […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Over the olecranon lies the olecranon bursa,which is only really palpable when it becomes inflamed and swollen.Keep the subject’s elbow flexed. Palpate for the upper border (apex) of the olecranon. Feel just lateral to this apex for the insertion of the tendon of the triceps muscle. Move the fingers upwards: a broad and flat tendon […]

Palpation of the brachialis muscle

Ask the subject to contract the biceps. Place the thumb and fingers in the indentations on both sides of the bicipital tendon (the lateral and medial bicipital grooves) and now ask for an isometric nexion. Under the fingers – and behind the biceps tendon – the contraction of the brachialis muscle can be felt. During […]

Elbow, wrist and hand

Wrist and hand rehabilitation

Because the function of the wrist and hand is essential to daily activities, special care is needed to avoid compromising the functional integrity of these structures. In addition to range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, attention should be paid to dexterity exercises and to tactile senses. The wrist and hand are a series […]

Fracture of the Lower End of the Humerus (Supracondylar Fracture)

Children often sustain fractures of the lower part of the humerus because of falls from gymnasium apparatus, and in riding or cycling falls.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Intense pain is felt during arm movements. – There is tenderness on pressure. – Swelling and bruising are noticeable. – Contour changes.


The injured person should be […]