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Passive pronation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the contralateral hand is placed against the volar part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Over the olecranon lies the olecranon bursa,which is only really palpable when it becomes inflamed and swollen.Keep the subject’s elbow flexed. Palpate for the upper border (apex) of the olecranon. Feel just lateral to this apex for the insertion of the tendon of the triceps muscle. Move the fingers upwards: a broad and flat tendon […]

Palpation of the brachialis muscle

Ask the subject to contract the biceps. Place the thumb and fingers in the indentations on both sides of the bicipital tendon (the lateral and medial bicipital grooves) and now ask for an isometric nexion. Under the fingers – and behind the biceps tendon – the contraction of the brachialis muscle can be felt. During […]

Hemorrhagic Bursitis

The usual cause of bleeding into a bursa is a direct impact such as a fall. It may also be caused indirectly by tendon rupture or by bleeding within a joint to which the bursa is connected. Blood within the bursa causes chemical irritation, and in severe cases, may clot and cause adhesion of connective […]

Bursa Injuries

Bursae are small, fluid-filled sacs whose function is to reduce friction, distribute stress, and protect the underlying structures. They may be found between a bone and a tendon, between two tendons, or between a bone or tendon and the overlying skin. There are a number of permanent bursae around the hips, knees, feet, shoulders, and […]

A Patient’s Guide to Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries

Introduction

The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can become stretched, frayed or torn through the stress of repetitive throwing motions.

Professional pitchers have been the athletes treated most often for this problem. Javelin throwers and football, racquet sports, ice hockey, and water polo players have also been reported to injure the UCL. A fall on an […]

A Patient’s Guide to Radial Tunnel Syndrome

Introduction

Radial tunnel syndrome happens when the radial nerve is squeezed where it passes through a tunnel near the elbow. The symptoms of radial tunnel syndrome are very similar to the symptoms of tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). There are very few helpful tests for radial tunnel syndrome, which can make it hard to diagnose.

This […]

A Patient’s Guide to Olecranon Bursitis

Introduction

Olecranon bursitis is inflammation of a small sac of fluid located on the tip of the elbow. This inflammation can cause many problems in the elbow.

This guide will help you understand

how olecranon bursitis develops why the condition causes problems what can be done for olecranon bursitis

Anatomy

Where is the olecranon bursa, […]

A Patient’s Guide to Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer’s Elbow)

Introduction

Medial epicondylitis is commonly known as golfer’s elbow. This does not mean that only golfers have this condition. But the golf swing is a common cause of medial epicondylitis. Many other repetitive activities can also lead to golfer’s elbow: throwing, chopping wood with an ax, running a chain saw, and using many types of […]

A Patient’s Guide to Distal Biceps Rupture

Introduction

A distal biceps rupture occurs when the tendon attaching the biceps muscle to the elbow is torn from the bone. This injury occurs mainly in middle-aged men during heavy work or lifting. A distal biceps rupture is rare compared to ruptures where the top of the biceps connects at the shoulder. Distal biceps ruptures […]