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Resisted extension of the wrist

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow extended and the wrist in neutral position (between pronation and supination,and between flexion and extension). The examiner stands level with the subject’s elbow. The contralateral arm lifts and carries the elbow and keeps it extended. The hand stabilizes the forearm. The other hand is placed […]

Passive pronation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the contralateral hand is placed against the volar part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Over the olecranon lies the olecranon bursa,which is only really palpable when it becomes inflamed and swollen.Keep the subject’s elbow flexed. Palpate for the upper border (apex) of the olecranon. Feel just lateral to this apex for the insertion of the tendon of the triceps muscle. Move the fingers upwards: a broad and flat tendon […]

Palpation of the brachialis muscle

Ask the subject to contract the biceps. Place the thumb and fingers in the indentations on both sides of the bicipital tendon (the lateral and medial bicipital grooves) and now ask for an isometric nexion. Under the fingers – and behind the biceps tendon – the contraction of the brachialis muscle can be felt. During […]

Entrapment of the Ulnar Nerve (Ulnar Neuritis)

If the medial posterior aspect of the elbow is accidentally hit, pain can be felt radiating to the fourth and fifth fingers of the hand. The ulnar nerve runs along the medial edge of the elbow just behind the epicondyle to which the flexor muscles of the wrist are attached. In throwing or racket sports […]

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis, Lateral Elbow Tendinosis)

Tennis is played by people of all ages, as it is a sport which in general does not produce severe medical problems. Problems do occur, however, in the elbow region. It should be remembered that only 5% of people suffering from tennis elbow relate the injury to tennis. This injury occurs in other racket sports […]

Rupture of the Major Pectoral Muscle

The pectoral muscle has its origin on the anterior chest wall and its insertion on the anterior surface of the upper part of the humerus. Its function is to draw the upper arm towards the chest and to rotate the arm inwards. When it is subjected to a heavy load, the pectoral muscle can tear. […]

Throwing

Throwing injuries are of increasing importance in both professional and amateur sports. They affect adults and children alike. Sports prone to throwing injuries include baseball, American football, tennis and other racket sports, javelin throwing, team handball, cricket, and sports with other overhead motions such as swimming and volleyball.

Throwing mechanism

The basic principle in throwing […]

Hemorrhagic Bursitis

The usual cause of bleeding into a bursa is a direct impact such as a fall. It may also be caused indirectly by tendon rupture or by bleeding within a joint to which the bursa is connected. Blood within the bursa causes chemical irritation, and in severe cases, may clot and cause adhesion of connective […]

Bursa Injuries

Bursae are small, fluid-filled sacs whose function is to reduce friction, distribute stress, and protect the underlying structures. They may be found between a bone and a tendon, between two tendons, or between a bone or tendon and the overlying skin. There are a number of permanent bursae around the hips, knees, feet, shoulders, and […]