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Passive extension

The subject stands with the arm outstretched. The examiner stands level with the
subject’S elbow. One hand stabilizes the elbow,and the other hand grasps the distal forearm.


• To test the range: move hands in opposite directions – distal hand downwards and proximal hand upwards.
• To test the end-feel: bring the subject’s elbow into slight flexion and move hands abruptly but gently in opposite directions towards extension.

Common mistakes.
The elbow is not in complete supination.

Normal functional anatomy:
• Rnllge: generally 0° in the male; in female subjects and in hypermobile persons
overextension of a few degrees may be possible
• Ellrl-feel: hard stop of bone engaging with bone
• Limitiug structures:

– bony contact between the olecranon process and olecranon fossa
– tension in the anterior part of the joint capsule.

Common pathological situations:

• A painful limitation occurs in arthritis of the elbow joint and also when a loose body is present in the posterior part of the joint.
• A painless limitation is present in uncomplicated arthrosis.

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