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Overall, it is estimated that approximately 300,000 sports-related concussive events occur in the United States annually. It has been estimated that 3.9% to 7.7% of high school and college athletes sustain a concussion each year.

Contact sports in particular place athletes at risk for head trauma. Football is recognized as having the highest risk; however, basketball, softball, soccer, baseball, rugby, and ice hockey also have a moderate to high risk of concussion.

The incidence of concussion among high school and collegiate football players is approximately 3% to 20%. In a recent study using comprehensive concussion assessment to investigate the incidence of concussion among 17,500 football players, Guskiewicz et al.

It found that 5.1% of athletes sustained a concussion in a single season; the greatest incidence of concussion was found at the high school level, followed by the division III college level. Recent data from the National Football League collected between 1996 and 2001 demonstrated a concussion rate of 0.41 concussions per NFL game.

Recent studies have highlighted an increased predisposition to future concussive events after an initial MTBI. Guskiewicz et al. It found a threefold increase in concussive risk if a player had suffered three or more MTBIs during a period of 7 years. In a separate study, the incidence of a recurrent concussion within a single football season was 14.7%.

Recurrent concussive events also may be associated with slower recovery severe and more severe symptoms. Players with two or more previous concussions require a longer time for symptom resolution, and athletes with three or more previous concussions have an eightfold increased risk of experiencing loss of consciousness after MTBI . The increased risk of repeat MTBI is thought to result from postconcussive neurometabolic changes that produced increased cerebral vulnerability to recurrent injury.

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