Featured on Channel NewsAsia

Knee Fractures in Singapore

The knee is the joint between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibial (lower leg). In front of the knee joint is the patella (kneecap), a bone set in the tendon of the big quadriceps muscle which straightens the leg. Knee fractures are injuries to one or more of these bones close to the knee […]

Meniscus injury


The meniscus is a small “c” shaped cartilage that acts as a cushion in the knee joint. They sit between the femur and the tibia bone, one on the outside and one on the inside of the knee. A meniscus tear occurs when the cartilage tear and […]

Total Knee Replacement

Your Total Knee Surgery

There are several ways to treat the pain caused by arthritis. One way is total knee replacement surgery. The decision to have total knee replacement surgery should be made very carefully after consulting your doctor and learning as much as you can about the knee joint, arthritis, and the surgery.


Knee injury – Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear

What is Anterior Cruciate Ligament tear?

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of four major knee ligaments. The ACL is critical to knee stability, and people who injure their ACL often complain of symptoms of their knee giving-out from under them. Therefore, many patients who sustain an ACL tear opt to have surgical […]

Structure And Architecture Of Skeletal Muscle


Understanding the structure and architecture of skeletal muscle begins at the level of the muscle cell, or fiber, itself. Muscle fibers are multinucleated cells with a cylindrical shape, and they have diameters ranging between 10 to 100 µm. Fibers range a few millimeters to several centimeters in length. This wide variation in muscle fiber […]

Cartilage Healing

It generally is agreed that intrinsic healing of cartilage lesions does not occur. There may be a response of the chondrocyte to injury, but this response does not result in cartilage repair.

The obvious example is seen in degenerative arthritis [degenerative joint disease (DJD) osteoarthrosis, and osteoarthritis (OA)], in which chondrocytes often form clones of […]

Fluid of Articular Cartilage

As noted earlier in the air-tent analogy, the inflation medium of articular cartilage is synovial fluid, which essentially is an ultrafiltrate of plasma plus hyaluronan. The hyaluronan molecules are too large to enter cartilage through its surface pores (diameter, 6 nm), but most of the remaining ions and molecules of normal synovial fluid, such as […]

Small Proteoglycans of Articular Cartilage

Small proteoglycan molecules consisting of biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin represent approximately 5% of the proteoglycan of articular cartilage. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycans were first observed in articular cartilage by Rosenberg in 1985. The small proteoglycans each consist of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan chain branches.

The core protein of the small proteoglycans is only one fourth […]

Nature of the Aggregate Linkage

The linkage of proteoglycan subunit, aggrecan, to hyaluronan is noncovalent, which contrasts with the covalent linkage of glycosaminoglycans to core protein in aggrecan. The aggregate linkage is facilitated and strengthened by low-molecular-weight proteins termed link proteins .

The linkage can occur without the presence of a link protein, but such proteins have been found in […]


The ability of proteoglycan to contribute to an even larger molecular structure by combining with hyaluronan originally was described by Hardingham and Muir.

Those authors elaborated on the dissociation and association experiments of Sajdera and Hascall to establish the mechanism of formation of the larger molecule, termed proteoglycan aggregate. Much attention has been given to […]