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A Patient’s Guide to Tibial Osteotomy

Introduction

Knee osteoarthritis often affects only one side of the knee joint. When this occurs, realigning the angle made between the bones of the leg can shift your body weight so that the healthy side of the knee joint takes more of the stress. The procedure to realign the angles of the lower leg is […]

A Patient’s Guide to Quadriceps Tendonitis of the Knee

Introduction

Alignment or overuse problems of the knee structures can lead to strain, irritation, and/or injury of the quadriceps muscle and tendon. This produces pain, weakness, and swelling of the knee joint.

These problems can affect people of all ages but the majority of patients with overuse injuries of the knee (and specifically quadriceps tendonitis) […]

A Patient’s Guide to Popliteal Cysts

Introduction

A popliteal cyst, also called a Baker’s cyst, is a soft, often painless bump that develops on the back of the knee. A cyst is usually nothing more than a bag of fluid. These cysts occur most often when the knee is damaged due to arthritis, gout, injury, or inflammation in the lining of […]

Total Knee Replacement

Your Total Knee Surgery

There are several ways to treat the pain caused by arthritis. One way is total knee replacement surgery. The decision to have total knee replacement surgery should be made very carefully after consulting your doctor and learning as much as you can about the knee joint, arthritis, and the surgery.

In […]

Meniscus Injuries

Five years ago, Dr. Goldblatt, orthopedic surgeon and professor at the University of Rochester School of Medicine (New York) wrote an article on meniscal (knee) injuries. It was published in the Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine. Today, Dr. Goldblatt and two other orthopedic surgeons update that information here. More and more efforts are being made to […]

Knee Fractures in Singapore

The knee is the joint between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibial (lower leg). In front of the knee joint is the patella (kneecap), a bone set in the tendon of the big quadriceps muscle which straightens the leg. Knee fractures are injuries to one or more of these bones close to the knee […]

Structure And Architecture Of Skeletal Muscle

Histology

Understanding the structure and architecture of skeletal muscle begins at the level of the muscle cell, or fiber, itself. Muscle fibers are multinucleated cells with a cylindrical shape, and they have diameters ranging between 10 to 100 µm. Fibers range a few millimeters to several centimeters in length. This wide variation in muscle fiber […]

Small Proteoglycans of Articular Cartilage

Small proteoglycan molecules consisting of biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin represent approximately 5% of the proteoglycan of articular cartilage. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycans were first observed in articular cartilage by Rosenberg in 1985. The small proteoglycans each consist of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan chain branches.

The core protein of the small proteoglycans is only one fourth […]

Synovial thickening

Synovial thickening is a vital c1inkal finding. It indicates primary inflammation of the synovia and differentiates this from a secondary synovitis.Synovial swelling is best detected at the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, about 2 cm posterior to the medial and lateral edges of the patella.

Here the capsule lies almost superficially,covered only by […]

Provocation tests for meniscal tears

Significance

These tests are used to detect, by demonstration of clicks and / or pain, meniscal tears in the absence of actual (sub)luxations. If clicks are detected, it is wise to examine the other limb as well in order to eliminate non-pathological clicks arising from tendons snapping over bony prominences.

Test I

Positioning.

The subject […]