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Knee Fractures in Singapore

The knee is the joint between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibial (lower leg). In front of the knee joint is the patella (kneecap), a bone set in the tendon of the big quadriceps muscle which straightens the leg. Knee fractures are injuries to one or more of these bones close to the knee […]

Total Knee Replacement

Your Total Knee Surgery

There are several ways to treat the pain caused by arthritis. One way is total knee replacement surgery. The decision to have total knee replacement surgery should be made very carefully after consulting your doctor and learning as much as you can about the knee joint, arthritis, and the surgery.


Knee injury – Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear

What is Anterior Cruciate Ligament tear?

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of four major knee ligaments. The ACL is critical to knee stability, and people who injure their ACL often complain of symptoms of their knee giving-out from under them. Therefore, many patients who sustain an ACL tear opt to have surgical […]

Structure And Architecture Of Skeletal Muscle


Understanding the structure and architecture of skeletal muscle begins at the level of the muscle cell, or fiber, itself. Muscle fibers are multinucleated cells with a cylindrical shape, and they have diameters ranging between 10 to 100 µm. Fibers range a few millimeters to several centimeters in length. This wide variation in muscle fiber […]

Cartilage Healing

It generally is agreed that intrinsic healing of cartilage lesions does not occur. There may be a response of the chondrocyte to injury, but this response does not result in cartilage repair.

The obvious example is seen in degenerative arthritis [degenerative joint disease (DJD) osteoarthrosis, and osteoarthritis (OA)], in which chondrocytes often form clones of […]

Fluid of Articular Cartilage

As noted earlier in the air-tent analogy, the inflation medium of articular cartilage is synovial fluid, which essentially is an ultrafiltrate of plasma plus hyaluronan. The hyaluronan molecules are too large to enter cartilage through its surface pores (diameter, 6 nm), but most of the remaining ions and molecules of normal synovial fluid, such as […]

Small Proteoglycans of Articular Cartilage

Small proteoglycan molecules consisting of biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin represent approximately 5% of the proteoglycan of articular cartilage. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycans were first observed in articular cartilage by Rosenberg in 1985. The small proteoglycans each consist of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan chain branches.

The core protein of the small proteoglycans is only one fourth […]

Collagen Chemistry

The molecular structure of collagen has been of considerable interest for more than a century, because it is the principal structural protein (by mass) for all mammals. It constitutes 65% to 80% of the mass by dry weight of such specialized connective tissues as tendons, ligaments, skin, joint capsules, and cartilage.

It is the only […]

Articular Cartilage

Key Points

Few mechanical devices even remotely approach the durability and efficiency of cartilage. The typical response to cartilage injury in which the subchondral plate is fractured is the formation of fibrocartilage, a scarlike tissue unsuited to the support of compressive loads and shear forces. The pattern of collagen fibrils within articular cartilage is well […]

Synovial thickening

Synovial thickening is a vital c1inkal finding. It indicates primary inflammation of the synovia and differentiates this from a secondary synovitis.Synovial swelling is best detected at the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, about 2 cm posterior to the medial and lateral edges of the patella.

Here the capsule lies almost superficially,covered only by […]