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The knee is the most frequently injured joint in athletics.Most injuries are due to the extreme stresses of twisting and turning activities such as those found in skiing, soccer, and American football. Medial collateral ligament and meniscal injuries are in the majority, but anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are also common and are responsible for a considerable amount of lost time from sport. The most
common overuse problems are patellofemoral pain syndromes and patellar tendinosis.

(Functional anatomy and biomechanics)
The knee joint is formed by the femur and tibia. In addition, the patella lies within the patellar tendon and glides over a groove on the front of the femur during knee motion. The patella provides a mechanical advantage for the quadriceps muscle to straighten the knee. The contacting surfaces of the three bones are lined with articular cartilage, and the joint is surrounded by a layer of synovium. The joint is stabilized by four strong ligaments: the medial collateral ligament (MCL); the lateral collateral ligament (LCL); the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The MCL and LCL prevent side-to-side motion, while the ACL and PCL limit abnormal front and back motion.Twisting injuries that
cause excess forces in these ligaments can tear the ligaments. The MCL and ACL are often injured together; the management of these injuries is improving, and athletes can often return to participation in sports.

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