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Salvage Procedures

In rare cases, individuals will continue to complain of instability despite attempted surgical reconstructions. In certain settings, glenohumeral arthrodesis may be the only option available. A sobering observation was presented by Richards, who found that many subjects had subjective sensations of instability despite radiographic evidence of solid arthrodeses.

Moreover, some of these patients developed problems with their scapulothoracic joint due to severe posturing, secondary scapular winging, pseudo-winging, and snapping scapula. These symptoms may occur as a result of the arthrodesis or may be aggravated by the fusion. Despite the concerns about arthrodeses, there may be no other reasonable option in this difficult subcategory of patients.

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