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Biceps Instability

Biceps instability takes the form of either frank dislocation or more subtle subluxation. As noted previously, the primary restraining structures holding the LHB in the bicipital groove are the medial sling and subscapularis tendon. Habermayer and Walch divided LHB dislocations into extra-articular or intra-articular. The much less common extra-articular dislocations dislodge from the bicipital groove […]

Epidemiology-Ice Hockey

Ice hockey continues to be increasingly popular throughout the United States and Canada. In contrast to American football, hockey experienced a marked increase in the occurrence of cervical spine injuries since 1980. The Canadian surveys performed by Tator et al.

From 1966 to 1993 reported a total of 241 spinal fracture and dislocations related to […]

Thumb MCP Joint Dislocations

The MCP joint is capable of a large degree of motion. The supporting structures of the thumb-MCP joint are uniquely developed. Dorsal (backwards) dislocation of the thumb MCP joint is a similar clinical entity to dislocation of the MCP joints of the fingers, with volar plate disruption and possible entrapment of the metacarpal head by […]

Dislocation of MCP joint

Dislocation of the MCP joint is a rare injury. When it does occur the border digits (the index and little fingers) are most commonly affected. Dorsal dislocation of the MCP joint occurs following forced hyperextension (bending backwards) of the fingers. The volar (palm) plate is ruptured and the head of the metacarpal can sometimes be […]

Dislocation of PIP Joint

Dislocation of the PIP joint is a common injury which often affects team handball, basketball and volleyball players, and cricketers. In 80% of cases it is the little finger that is damaged. The most common mechanism of injury is axial loading and hyperextension of the joint causing dorsal dislocation (dislocation upwards and backwards). The dorsal […]

Dislocations around the Wrist

Dislocations around the wrist are rare in sports, but are important to recognize because a good recovery depends on early and correct diagnosis and treatment. Even with proper treatment, these injuries often have long-term residual symptoms.

Separation between the scaphoid and lunate

Scapholunate dissociation may occur in forced dorsiflexion of the wrist. Ligamentous disruption between […]


The term ‘osteoarthritis’ applies particularly to the degeneration and excessive wear of articular cartilage, although gradual changes in underlying bone tissue (subchondral bone) also occur. The condition is one which develops and progresses with increasing age. It may be ‘primary’ or ‘secondary’. – Primary osteoarthritis, the cause of which is unknown, occurs most frequently in […]

Anterior Shoulder Dislocation


There is acute onset of localised swelling and pain over the anterior part of the shoulder with deformation, after an excessive external rotation and abduction trauma. This is the most common type of dislocation in sports (85-90 per cent). Movements of the arm cause pain and the patient will protect the arm in […]

Dislocation of Finger Joint


There is intense localised pain and deformation (bayonet position, where distal phalanx is retracted over the dislocated joint by flexor tendons) of a meta-carpo-phalangeal (MCP), proximal inter-phalangeal joint (PIP) or distal inter-phalangeal (DIP) joint after direct trauma from a hard ball or a fall on a stretched-out finger.


One or more […]

Patella Dislocation


The knee gives way (often with a loud popping sound) followed by immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the anterior part of the knee, preventing further activity.


The medial patella retinaculum ruptures, allowing the kneecap to migrate laterally. The kneecap can lock the knee in the flexed position by getting stuck outside […]