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Passive supination

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the ipsilateral hand is placed against the dorsal part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

Passive pronation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the contralateral hand is placed against the volar part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

FUNCTIONAL EXAMINATION OF THE ELBOW

PASSIVE TESTS

Passive flexion

Positioning. The subject stands with the arm outstretched. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm. He places one hand against the back of the shoulder and grasps the distal forearm with the other hand.

Procedure. Bring the hand towards the shoulder,thereby stabilizing the latter, until the movement comes to a […]

Passive tests-Passive internal rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm and stabilizes the elbow with his trunk. One hand is placed on the opposite shoulder to stabilize the shoulder girdle and trunk; the other takes hold of […]

PASSIVE TESTS-Passive external rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm and stabilizes the elbow with his trunk. One hand is placed on the contralateral shoulder to stabilize the shoulder girdle and trunk; the other takes hold of the […]