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Fracture of the Distal Radius and Ulna

A fracture of the distal radius (Colles’ fracture) is the most common of all fractures. It usually occurs as a result of a fall on the extended arm, forcing the hand backwards and upwards. A less common injury is Smith’s fracture where the mechanism is a forward flexion (palmar flexion) of the wrist. The injury […]

Stress Fracture of the Radial Epiphysis


There is exercise-induced pain and localised swelling over the distal radius. It is common in young gymnasts, soccer players and martial arts athletes.


These symptoms are caused by a stress fracture of the radial epiphysis from excessive tension-compression activities.


There is localised tenderness on palpation and pain on […]

Giant Cell Tumor

Basics Description A benign but often locally aggressive neoplasm, characterized by large numbers of uniformly distributed, osteoclastlike giant cells and a background population of plump, epithelioid-to-spindle mononuclear cells. The vast majority of these tumors are located near the articular end of a tubular bone; ~50% occur in the knee. Other frequently involved sites: Distal […]