Specialists

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Subacromial Bursitis

One large bursa in the shoulder is located between the supraspinatus muscle and the deltoid muscle and acromion process of the scapula. In its inflamed state the bursa is about the size of a golf ball. Inflammation of the bursa (subacromial bursitis) commonly occurs.

Causes

– A fall or blow to the shoulder or a […]

Olecranon Bursitis

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual or acute onset of localised swelling and inflammatory signs over the olecranon.

AETIOLOGY

It can occur after direct trauma and bleeding, from repetitive stress causing synovial fluid to fill the bursa, ‘student’s elbow’ or pus in the bursa from infected superficial skin wounds.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Localised tender fluctuating […]

Prepatellar Bursitis

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual or acute onset of localised swelling and inflammatory signs over the patella.

AETIOLOGY

The bursitis can develop from a direct trauma and bleeding or from repetitive stress, when synovial fluid fills the bursa (housemaid’s knee) or when pus from infected superficial skin wounds penetrates the bursa.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There […]

Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD)

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual onset of diffuse or localised exercise-induced pain and soreness, often also at rest, usually in a young athlete without preceding trauma.

AETIOLOGY

The aetiology is unknown but is often thought to be due to repetitive minor trauma. The sub-chondral bone goes into avascular necrosis and the overlying cartilage cracks. […]

Cartilage Injuries

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradual or acute on set of effusion and exercise-induced pain often combined with mechanical problems of locking, clicking, clunking or discomfort on impact (compression and rotation). This injury is common in sports such as football, rugby and other high-intensity contact sports but can also occur gradually in sports where hypermobility is […]

Syndesmosis Ligament Rupture

SYMPTOMS

There is a severe sharp pain around the anterior tibio fibula junction, haemarthrosis and sense of ankle instability after a severe hyperflexion – inversion or eversion ankle sprain. A player cannot continue and will limp off the pitch. This injury is well-known in association with a fracture but occurs frequently in isolation in […]

Lateral Ankle Ligament Ruptures

SYMPTOMS

The patient refers to a sudden sharp tearing pain around the lateral aspect of the ankle joint after an acute inversion sprain or, on occasions, of recurrent instability after previous sprains.

AETIOLOGY

The anterior talo-fibular (ATF) and fibulo-calcanear (FC) ligaments are the most commonly damaged structures in uncomplicated inversion-plantar flexion ankle sprain. Most […]

Turf Toe

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradually increasing stiffness and diffuse aching pain around MTP I. Commonly affects team sports players who wear studded shoes.

AETIOLOGY

Common theories include repetitive minor trauma to the capsule and cartilage of MTP I from ill-fitting shoes, direct impact and playing on hard turf with shoes that get stuck. […]

Self Diagnosis of Sports Injuries

The principles of injury management rely on the premise that we know what we are treating. Diagnosis is the key to success. We must differentiate injuries such as ‘knee sprain’, ‘muscle strain’ and ‘bruises’ from the corresponding pathoanatomical diagnoses: ‘rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament’, ‘grade II muscle rupture’ or ‘intra-muscular haematoma’. In some cases, […]

Septic Hip

Basics Description The incidence of septic hip is increasing, especially in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. This condition may occur in infants, children, adults, and the elderly, but it is more common in the pediatric population. Risks factors include hip surgery (most common cause), intravenous drug abuse, alcoholism, and steroid use. Epidemiology Incidence In children, […]