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Complications and Special Considerations

Complications of the biceps tenotomy primarily involve the anticipated 21% risk of a Popeye deformity of the biceps muscle as it retracts distally. Most men may not be concerned about this deformity, but it may not be cosmetically acceptable to women or bodybuilders. Patients should be counseled on these risks if this treatment modality is […]


Few would dispute the critical role of the biceps brachii at the elbow joint and its function has been well documented at this position. It is with the LHB’s role at the shoulder where the arguments intensify. Many authors have suggested that the LHB has a role in humeral head depression—particularly with shoulder external rotation […]

Elbow, wrist and hand

Wrist and hand rehabilitation

Because the function of the wrist and hand is essential to daily activities, special care is needed to avoid compromising the functional integrity of these structures. In addition to range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, attention should be paid to dexterity exercises and to tactile senses. The wrist and hand are a series […]

Biceps Tendon Rupture


There is acute onset of pain over the anterior part of the shoulder with a lump typically forming at the mid-biceps from the retracted muscle bulk (the ‘Popeye sign’). Usually the biceps longus tendon, originating from the anterior superior labrum, ruptures and the short biceps tendon originating at the coracoid is intact. This […]

Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture


There is acute pain in the elbow and sudden weakness in elbow flexion.


This is an acute injury, where the tendon usually ruptures close to the distal insertion at the radius during an excessive elbow extension or flexion manoeuvre.


Pain and weakness is provoked by resisting elbow flexion. […]