Specialists

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Biomechanics

Few would dispute the critical role of the biceps brachii at the elbow joint and its function has been well documented at this position. It is with the LHB’s role at the shoulder where the arguments intensify. Many authors have suggested that the LHB has a role in humeral head depression—particularly with shoulder external rotation […]

Fractures and Dislocations

Dislocation

Dislocation of the elbow joint occurs mainly in athletes participating in contact sports, such as football, rugby, and ice hockey, but can also occur in riders, cyclists, wrestlers, skiers, and squash players. A common cause of this injury is falling on the hand with a bent elbow. A similar injury can occur if the […]

Little Leaguer’s Elbow

When a ball is thrown in baseball, the wrist and the fingers are vigorously pronated. The muscles responsible for this movement are all located in the inner (medial) compartment of the forearm. The force of the throw is transmitted up through the arm to the weakest part of the muscle group, which is the medial […]

Fracture of the Head of the Radius

The radius is thick and strong at the wrist, but considerably smaller in circumference and more fragile at the elbow. When the arm is stretched out to break a fall, the forces imposed are distributed through the forearm to the upper part of the radius. The radial head, which forms part of the elbow joint, […]

Osteochondritis Dissecans (Loose Bone Cartilage)

In throwing movements the lateral part of the elbow joint is exposed to considerable loads, because of compression due to valgus loads. This can cause the convex upper articular surface of the radius in the forearm to come into violent contact with, and even to injure, the lateral outer portion of the articular surface of […]

Tear of the Long Tendon of the Biceps

Tears of the long tendon of the biceps muscle are seen in gymnasts, tennis players and badminton players, wrestlers, rowers, weightlifters, and javelin throwers.

The long biceps tendon is susceptible to degenerative changes, which predispose it to rupture. The tears occur most often in athletes over the age of 40–50 years; in younger athletes this […]

Injuries affecting the Upper Arm

Overuse injury of the long tendon of the biceps

Overuse injury of the long tendon of the biceps is usually secondary to another shoulder injury such as impingement or instability. The biceps injury is usually of a degenerative nature. Midsubstance degenerative changes in a tendon are referred to as tendinosis. This biceps tendon glides over […]

Injury of the Subscapularis Tendon

Injury of the subscapularis tendon

The subscapularis muscle (which originates on the inner surface of the scapula, runs anterior to the shoulder joint, and is inserted high into the anterior aspect of the head of the humerus) is the most important internal rotator of the upper arm. Its tendon can be affected by partial or […]

Cartilage Injury and Loose Bodies

SYMPTOMS

There is acute or gradual onset of exercise-induced pain around the elbow with recurrent locking or pseudo-locking or extension and flexion lag.

AETIOLOGY

This is a cartilage injury in the elbow joint, which can occur by repetitive stress or direct impact, causing mechanical blocking and synovitis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is diffuse tenderness on palpation […]

Olecranon Fracture

Basics Description The olecranon: Is the proximal bony projection of the ulna at the elbow Articulates with the trochlea of the distal humerus to form the ulnohumeral portion of the elbow joint: This articulation is responsible for flexion and extension of the elbow joint. Is the insertion site of the triceps tendon Contraction of […]