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Tennis Elbow

Basics Description Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a tendinopathy of the origin of the ECRB tendon. The lateral epicondyle is the origin of the common wrist extensor tendon, including: ECRL ECRB Extensor digitorum communis Extensor carpi ulnaris The ECRB lies beneath the ECRL. These extensors stabilize the wrist and are used in sports (such […]


Basics Description Spondylolisthesis is an abnormal AP translation of 2 vertebral bodies relative to each other. This translation is secondary to a defect in the pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) or the posterior ligamentous-bony restraints. Spondylolisthesis is classified by type (Table 1) and by the severity of the slip (Table 2). General Prevention No preventive measures […]

Shoulder/Proximal Humerus Fracture

Basics Description The proximal humerus consists of the articular surface of the shoulder joint and the attachments of the rotator cuff to the greater and lesser tuberosities. Most of the blood supply to the humeral head comes from the anterior humeral circumflex branch of the axillary artery. >90% of proximal humeral fractures result from […]

Friedreich Ataxia

Basics Description Friedreich ataxia is an uncommon, heritable disorder causing progressive spinocerebellar degeneration. Scoliosis, ataxia, and foot deformities are the most common findings. Systems affected: Central nervous system; Heart; Skeleton Classification: No subclassifications are used in Friedreich ataxia. It is classified under the category spinocerebellar degeneration, and it is the most common example of […]

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

Basics Description Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the most common hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. Involvement progresses from distal to proximal: Lower extremity wasting, weakness, and cavovarus feet develop, followed in some cases by upper extremity weakness. 5 recognized types: Type I (hypertrophic form): The most common form (50% of patients) Thickened nerves have abnormal myelin […]

Cervical Disc Herniation

Basics Description Cervical disc herniation is a condition in which retropulsion of disc material occurs, with resulting compression of the neural elements (nerve root[s] and/or spinal cord), resulting in neck pain, radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy. Classification Herniation is classified as acute or chronic. The classification of myelopathy is based on physical function. General Prevention No […]

Burners (Stingers)

Basics Description Burners (also termed stingers) are traction injuries that result in a neurapraxia of the brachial plexus. Patients typically report pain that radiates into the shoulder and down the arm to the hand, which is usually described as a dead arm. These injuries are common in tackling sports and usually occur in teenagers […]

A Thorough Review of Cubital (Not Carpal!) Tunnel Syndrome

Of the two most common nerve entrapment conditions affecting the arm, the cubital tunnel syndrome is less well-known than the compression neuropathy known as carpal tunnel syndrome. In this article, patients, orthopedic surgeons, and physical therapists will all find valuable information on the cubital tunnel syndrome.

The authors present a detailed review of the surgery […]