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The clavicle, an “S”-shaped bone, is the only long bone that ossifies by an intramembranous process. It is the first bone in the body to ossify (fifth week of fetal gestation) and is the last bone to fuse (medial epiphysis at 25 years of age). The clavicle consists of cancellous bone surrounded by an outer […]

Passive extension


Bring the subject’s wrist into maximal extension.

Common mistakes


Normal functional anatomy:

• Range: 85· • Elld-feel: rather hard • Limitiug strlfctures:

– stretching of the palmar ligaments of the carpus and of the intercarpal ligaments and capsules – contact of the proximal row of carpal bones against the radius.

Common pathological […]

Traumatic injuries

Children and adolescents are injured more often than adults, but their injuries are usually less serious. This may partly be due to the fact that children are physically smaller than adults, so that less force is involved in the injury. Children’s tissues are significantly different from those of adults: their bone structure is more resilient […]

Hip Complaints in Children and Adolescents

Perthes’ disease

Perthes’ disease afflicts children between the ages of 3 years and 11 years. Its precise cause is unknown. The bone structure of the head of the femur becomes deformed and flattened due to osteonecrosis (death of bone). The child complains of tiredness and of pain in the groin and sometimes the knee, and […]

Little Leaguer’s Elbow

When a ball is thrown in baseball, the wrist and the fingers are vigorously pronated. The muscles responsible for this movement are all located in the inner (medial) compartment of the forearm. The force of the throw is transmitted up through the arm to the weakest part of the muscle group, which is the medial […]

Elbow Injuries in Children

Elbow injuries in children

Unique bony problems of the elbow are seen in children and adolescents. The pathology of these problems corresponds to each stage in the development of the elbow—that is, prior to the appearance of all the secondary centers of ossification in children; prior to fusion of the ossification centers in adolescents; and […]

Stress Fracture of the Radial Epiphysis


There is exercise-induced pain and localised swelling over the distal radius. It is common in young gymnasts, soccer players and martial arts athletes.


These symptoms are caused by a stress fracture of the radial epiphysis from excessive tension-compression activities.


There is localised tenderness on palpation and pain on […]

Prescription Sports


Running is one of the most popular sports in the world. This not only covers marathons and track and field running – running is also part of the training in virtually all other sports, including soccer, rugby, handball and triathlon. Running is a very efficient method for maintaining or improving […]

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Basics Description SCFE is a disorder of the hips of adolescents or preadolescents in which the femoral head is displaced relative to the rest of the femur. The femoral head remains in the acetabulum. Most notable features: The outward rotation of the lower femur and leg and a limp Classification: Stable versus unstable (1): […]


Basics Description A benign tumor of cartilaginous origin with a predilection for the epiphysis in skeletally immature patients Generally found in the epiphyses of long bones. The humerus is most commonly affected, followed by the tibia and femur . Synonyms: Codman tumor; Epiphyseal chondromatous giant cell tumor Epidemiology A slight male predominance (2:1) is […]