Specialists

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Spinal Stenosis

Basics Description Compression of neural elements secondary to osteoarthritic changes (bone spurs, hypertrophied ligamentum flavum, disc space narrowing) at intervertebral levels and facet joints Characterized by back and/or lower extremity pain, numbness, weakness, and possible bladder/bowel dysfunction. General Prevention No known preventive measures Epidemiology Symptoms develop during the 5th and 6th decades. No gender […]

Shoulder/Glenohumeral Arthritis

Basics Description Progressive loss of glenohumeral joint space with thinning of articular cartilage, formation of osteophytes, and progressive deformity Epidemiology Females are more likely than males to have primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Patients >60 years old are more likely to have it than are younger patients. Incidence ~0.4% in the general population Can reach 4.6% […]

Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies

Basics Description Also called enthesopathies, these inflammatory diseases are associated with a negative rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibody titer that affects the spine and multiple peripheral joints. Included in the seronegative spondyloarthropathies are AS, reactive arthritis (formerly known as Reiter syndrome), psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis. Synonym: Reactive arthritis General Prevention Although the disease […]

Septic Knee

Basics Description A septic knee is an infection of the synovial lining of the knee joint. Predisposing factors include arthritis, intravenous drug abuse and alcoholism, steroid use, and any form of immunosuppression . Epidemiology Incidence Common May occur in infants, children, adults, and the geriatric population Risk Factors Intravenous drug abuse and alcoholism Trauma, […]

Septic Hip

Basics Description The incidence of septic hip is increasing, especially in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. This condition may occur in infants, children, adults, and the elderly, but it is more common in the pediatric population. Risks factors include hip surgery (most common cause), intravenous drug abuse, alcoholism, and steroid use. Epidemiology Incidence In children, […]

Septic Arthritis

Basics Description Septic arthritis is an infection of the joint. In infants, the capillaries penetrating the physeal plate into the epiphysis persist until age 18 months, so spread of infection may occur from the metaphysis indirectly to the epiphysis and then to the joint. Possible irreparable damage to growth plate occurs. Classification: Polyarticular septic […]

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Basics Description Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting synovial joints and extra-articular systems, including the skin, eyes, cardiovascular system, bronchopulmonary system, spleen, and nervous system. Epidemiology Incidence Affects 1% of the population Prevalence Variable onset, but most frequently between the ages of 35 and 50 years Females are affected 2-3 […]

Puncture Wounds of the Foot

Basics Description Puncture injuries of the foot typically occur on the plantar surface of the forefoot or heel. The injuring object usually is a nail, needle, or pin, but it can be anything that punctures the soft tissue, including thorns, glass, and splinters. Classification: Early presentation: Day of injury Late presentation: At least 3-5 […]

Prepatellar Bursitis

Basics Description Prepatellar bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa in front of the patella. Bursae are located between structures to reduce friction. These sacs are lined with a membranous synovium that produces and absorbs fluid; they are subject to acute or chronic trauma or infection and to low-grade inflammatory conditions such as gout, […]

Osteomyelitis

Basics Description Osteomyelitis is inflammation or infection of bone. Classification is most commonly based on the timing of onset: Acute: Most often from hematogenous spread: The most common organism in neonates is Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Streptococcus or Gram-negative organisms. In older infants and children, it usually is S. aureus. Subacute: Accounts for 1/3 […]