Specialists

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Wrist Anatomy and Examination

Basics

Description Bones: The wrist is composed of 8 carpal bones in 2 rows (proximal and distal); from radial to ulnar: Proximal row: Scaphoid (or navicular) Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Distal row: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Tunnels: The wrist has 6 dorsal and 2 volar (or palmar) compartments (or tunnels) that transport tendons to the hand. […]

Shoulder Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Bones: Glenohumeral joint: The humeral head articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. Stabilized by the glenohumeral ligaments capsule and rotator cuff muscles The labrum of the glenoid deepens the joint and enhances stability. AC joint: The acromion process of the scapula articulates with the distal clavicle. Suspends the arm and […]

Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The spine is a complex system composed of bony elements, articulations, ligaments, muscles, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves divided into anterior, middle, and posterior columns. The vertebral body, lamina, and the spinous process protect the spinal cord. The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae and 5 nerve roots. Most lumbar spines have a […]

Cervical Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy: The cervical spine contains 7 cervical vertebrae, from which arise 8 nerve roots. The normal cervical spine has a lordotic curvature. Intact functional cervical vertebrae are vital because they protect both the spinal cord and the vertebral artery. Of the 8 nerve roots that arise from the cervical vertebrae, all but […]