Featured on Channel NewsAsia

Glenoid Labrum

The glenoid labrum provides another static restraint to GH motion. The labrum is a fibrous ring attached to the glenoid articular surface through a fibrocartilagenous transition zone. The labrum functions as an anchor point for the GH ligaments and the biceps tendon; it also deepens the glenoid socket and enhances stability.

This wedge-shaped, fibrous structure […]


The technique and approach of surgical decompression of the suprascapular nerve is dependent on the location of the presumed etiology of the nerve dysfunction. If the pathology is at the suprascapular notch, then the transverse scapular ligament and suprascapular notch may be approached anteriorly, superiorly, or posteriorly.

The anterior approach uses a saber-type incision, just […]

Snapping Hip

‘Snapping hip’ syndrome can be caused by injuries both within the joint and outside the joint. The condition is not well defined. Causes are as follows.

1. Lateral snapping: the thickened iliotibial band riding over the greater trochanter or a thickened bursa.

2. Anterior deep snapping:

• the iliopsoas tendon passing over the anterior aspect […]

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears

The triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) is a cartilaginous disk, much like the meniscus cartilage of the knee, which overlies the distal aspect of the ulna in the wrist joint. It is part of the TFC complex (TFCC) which supports the carpal bones on the ulnar side of the wrist and provides some stability for the distal […]

Fracture of the Lower End of the Humerus (Supracondylar Fracture)

Children often sustain fractures of the lower part of the humerus because of falls from gymnasium apparatus, and in riding or cycling falls.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Intense pain is felt during arm movements. – There is tenderness on pressure. – Swelling and bruising are noticeable. – Contour changes.


The injured person should be […]

Separation of the Sternoclavicular Joint

The sternoclavicular joint is seldom separated, but it is an important injury to recognize. The medial end of the clavicle, and hence the shoulder, is anchored to the sternum by the sternoclavicular ligaments. The joint cavity lies obliquely and contains a meniscus (disk). If the shoulder is subjected to a violent impact, the sternoclavicular joint […]

Cartilage Injury and Loose Bodies


There is acute or gradual onset of exercise-induced pain around the elbow with recurrent locking or pseudo-locking or extension and flexion lag.


This is a cartilage injury in the elbow joint, which can occur by repetitive stress or direct impact, causing mechanical blocking and synovitis.


There is diffuse tenderness on palpation […]

Hip Joint Osteoarthritis


There is gradual onset of diffuse exercise-induced pain in the groin. The hip joint is usually stiff and more painful in the morning than in the afternoon and rotational movements are most difficult. In severe cases, there is pain during rest. There are periods of better and worse symptoms. Secondary muscular symptoms are […]

Posterior Inpingement of the Ankle


There is a gradually increasing stiffness of the ankle and exercise-induced pain around the posterior part of the ankle joint, sometimes after previous sprain. This injury often affects footballers and ballet dancers.


Impingement syndrome is not a diagnosis but a symptom and may be caused by repetitive injury to the posterior ankle […]

Tarsal Coalition


There is diffuse exercise-induced aching pain around the sub-talar joint, sometimes after previous sprain.


The aetiology is unclear. Sub-talar structures fuse over time by fibrosis or callus formation.


There is tenderness on palpation over the sub-talar joint (sinus tarsi), decreased mobility and swelling.


X-ray may show talo-navicular coalition; talo-calcaneal coalition […]