Specialists

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Patellar Instability or Mal – Tracking

SYMPTOMS

The knee feels unstable or weak, or gives way in association with recurrent pain around the anterior part of the knee, with or without preceding trauma. It is particularly common in young female athletes.

AETIOLOGY

This condition can be caused by inherited conditions such as patella baja or alta, genu valgus or […]

Patella Tendon Rupture

SYMPTOMS

Acute sharp pain to the anterior part of the knee and inability to walk and extend the knee. Patella tendon ruptures are rare.

AETIOLOGY

This is an injury that typically occurs after previous cortisone injections to the area or when using anabolic steroids, which weaken the tendon. Long-term use of corticosteroids in […]

Chondromalacia Patella

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual onset of diffuse exercise-induced pain around the anterior part of the knee. Prolonged sitting or squatting often trigger the symptoms (positive movie sign). Walking down stairs is more difficult than up.

AETIOLOGY

Chondromalacia means ‘soft cartilage’. The exact aetiology is unknown. The correct diagnosis must be identified, by arthroscopic probing, […]

Anterior Chronic Compartment Syndrome

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradual onset of diffuse exercise-induced pain on the anterior lateral aspect of the lower leg. It is common in fairly short but muscular ‘bulky’ athletes. The pain becomes so great that continued sport is not possible. The athletes complain that the muscles feel like they are bursting. Rest, with the […]

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

SYMPTOMS

There is aching or sharp pain around the medial part of the foot and ankle joint, often radiating along the medial or the lateral part of the foot, or towards the plantar fascia insertion.

AETIOLOGY

This syndrome is caused by trapping of the posterior tibia nerve or any of its branches in the tarsal […]

Posterior Inpingement of the Ankle

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradually increasing stiffness of the ankle and exercise-induced pain around the posterior part of the ankle joint, sometimes after previous sprain. This injury often affects footballers and ballet dancers.

AETIOLOGY

Impingement syndrome is not a diagnosis but a symptom and may be caused by repetitive injury to the posterior ankle […]

Turf Toe

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradually increasing stiffness and diffuse aching pain around MTP I. Commonly affects team sports players who wear studded shoes.

AETIOLOGY

Common theories include repetitive minor trauma to the capsule and cartilage of MTP I from ill-fitting shoes, direct impact and playing on hard turf with shoes that get stuck. […]

Sesam Bone Stress Fractures

SYMPTOMS

There is gradually increasing exerciseinduced pain and swelling around and below MTP I or diffuse pain in the forefoot on forefoot landings and running.

AETIOLOGY

This injury is usually caused by excessive direct impact from landing on the forefoot on hard surfaces.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is distinct tenderness on palpation over the medial or […]