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Achilles tendinitis is a syndrome of irritation of the Achilles tendon in the ankle. The Achilles tendon is the large tendon in the back of the ankle that inserts into the heel bone.

When individuals overuse their Achilles tendon it becomes irritated and inflamed. This inflammation can cause pain and swelling. […]



Patellar tendinitis is a common overuse injury. It occurs when repeated stress is placed on the patellar tendon. The stress results in tiny tears in the tendon, which the body attempts to repair. However when the tears in the tendon increase faster than what the body can recover, it […]



Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine is curved from side to side, shaped like an “s” or “c”, and the spine may also be rotated.


A rib “hump” or a prominent shoulder blade caused by rotation of the ribcage in thoracic scoliosis can be […]

Management-Nonoperative Management

Conservative treatment is almost always the initial management, provided that no severe vascular compromise is pres-ent. Success rates for nonoperative treatment have been reported to range from 67% to 90%. Nonoperative management includes relative rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to reduce repetitive irritation and swelling around the nerve that may be causing the symptoms.

Postural […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Quadratus Lumborum

The quadratus lumborum consists of medial and lateral fibers that are enclosed by the anterior and middle layers of the thoracolumbar fascia. The medial fibers attach “from the ilium to the anterior surface of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and other fibers travel from the transverse processes to anchor onto the twelfth rib.



The biomechanics of the ankle and foot are important for the normal function of the lower extremity. The foot is the terminal joint in the lower kinetic chain.

Range-of-motion exercises

Ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion

Sitting with your legs out straight, pull your whole foot and ankle up towards you as far as possible, keeping your knee […]



The neck should be examined very carefully by a physician before any exercise commences, because of the many sensitive structures it comtains.

Range-of-motion exercises

Before the program starts a check-up with a physical therapist or an athletic trainer is advisable. Before performing each motion, align your head so your ears are over your shoulders. […]

Overuse Injury of the upper part of the Rectus Femoris Muscle-Tendon Unit

The rectus femoris muscle arises above the articular cavity of the hip joint. The muscle flexes the hip and extends the knee joint. After intensive shooting practice in soccer, repeated fast starts, strength training, and similar activities, pain can be felt just above the hip joint.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Pain occurs during and after […]

Inflammation of Muscle Attachments

The muscle attachments around the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar spine can become inflamed as a result of overuse. Such injuries are most common among crosscountry skiers, javelin, discus and hammer throwers, weightlifters, and players of racket sports.


The athlete experiences:

– pain during exertion; – aching after exertion; – tenderness on […]

Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome is a rare injury, characterized by an exercise-induced ache or pain with a sensation of increased pressure or tightness. Intermittent weakness or numbness may be noted. Because the causes of compartment syndrome are poorly understood, it is difficult to diagnose this injury. Direct evaluation of intramuscular pressure is helpful. As conservative treatment is […]