Specialists

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Whiplash

Another important cause of cervical spine trauma is the ‘whiplash’ injury which occurs when the neck is rapidly extended and then flexed, typically in a road traffic accident when one vehicle is run into by another from behind. Ligament, bone, and muscle injuries, which may result in chronic pain, can occur, and anyone who has […]

Subtrochanteric Fracture

Basics Description By definition, subtrochanteric hip fractures (or, simply, subtrochanteric fractures) extend into the region between the lesser trochanter and a point 5 cm distally. Classification: Multiple systems exist, but prognostically the most critical factor is fracture stability, which is based on the degrees of comminution of the medial and posteromedial cortex. The Russell […]

Open Fractures

Basics Description Open fractures are defined as situations in which the fracture site communicates with the outside environment. The bone does not need to protrude from the skin for the injury to be an open fracture. Any full-thickness skin laceration in the zone of fracture injury is considered an open fracture. Open fractures can […]

Nonunion of Fractures

Basics Description Presence of a postfracture defect in a long bone beyond a reasonable expected healing date, or if no radiographic progression of healing is noted If internal fixation is used to stabilize a fracture, a race exists between fracture healing and hardware failure. Children, because of their active healing potential, rarely develop a […]

Humeral Shaft Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the diaphysis (shaft) of the humerus Occur at all ages Classification: AO classification method Anatomic location: Proximal 1/3 of the shaft Medial 1/3 of the shaft Distal 1/3 of the shaft Fracture characteristics: Fracture pattern (transverse versus oblique versus comminuted) Fractures may be open or closed. Pathologic (secondary to underlying […]

Fracture Treatment

Basics Description Fractured or broken bones are a common result of trauma. Treatment of fractures may be with or without surgery and depends on the location and severity of the fracture. Nondisplaced: 1 or both cortices may be involved, but the fracture has not moved. Nondisplaced fractures may be difficult to detect. Displaced: Displacement […]

Forearm Fracture

Basics Description Forearm fractures involve the bones of the forearm (the radius and ulna), and sometimes the fractures are associated with elbow and wrist injuries. In addition to the bone injury, soft-tissue injuries may include compartment syndrome, neurapraxia, and vascular damage. Adults are more susceptible than children to more severe injuries. Adults also require […]

Femoral Shaft Fracture in the Child

Basics Description Femoral shaft fractures are defined as those >5 cm below the lesser trochanter, but above the distal metaphyseal (wider) portion of the lower femur. The location usually is specified as: Proximal Midshaft Distal Although the femur usually requires a large amount of energy to fracture, fractures can occur with low amounts of […]

Femoral Shaft Fracture in the Adult

Basics Description Femoral shaft fractures occur in the diaphysis of the bone. High-energy trauma such as vehicular accidents, falls, or gunshots are the common causes of these fractures in normal bone. Low-energy trauma may cause femoral shaft fractures in pathologic or osteoporotic bone. Classification: Winquist and Hansen assessed fractures according to the proportion of […]