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In-Toeing in Children

In-Toeing and Out-Toeing

In-Toeing and Out-Toeing

What is in-toeing?

Most people’s feet point straight ahead or slightly outward. Some people’s feet, however, point inward a musculoskeletal condition referred to as in-toeing. In-toeing affects infants and children and is characterized by an inwardly rotated foot or feet, or, less often, an outwardly rotated foot or feet […]

A Patient’s Guide to Hip Arthroscopy

Hip Arthroscopy

Hip Arthroscopy

A hip arthroscopy is a procedure where a small video camera attached to a fiberoptic lens is inserted into the hip joint to allow a surgeon to see without making a large incision. Arthroscopy is now used to evaluate and treat orthopedic problems in many different joints of the body. While […]

Meniscus injury


The meniscus is a small “c” shaped cartilage that acts as a cushion in the knee joint. They sit between the femur and the tibia bone, one on the outside and one on the inside of the knee. A meniscus tear occurs when the cartilage tear and […]

Total Knee Replacement

Your Total Knee Surgery

There are several ways to treat the pain caused by arthritis. One way is total knee replacement surgery. The decision to have total knee replacement surgery should be made very carefully after consulting your doctor and learning as much as you can about the knee joint, arthritis, and the surgery.


PASSIVE TESTS-Passive flexion


The subject lies in the supine position with extended legs. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the distal part of the leg, just proximal to the malleoli; the other hand grasps the knee at the medial femoral condyle.


Move the extended leg upwards until the knee can […]

Passive external rotation


The subject lies in the supine position with the hip and knee bent to 90°. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hip. One hand supports the lower leg just above the ankle, the other hand is put at the knee and stabilizes the femur in a vertical position.


Rotate the […]

Female athlete triad

Exercise and sports have many beneficial effects on women as well as on men. However, some women suffer from a syndrome called the ‘female athlete triad’. This is syndrome comprises three interrelated disorders: eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The female athlete is most at risk of developing this syndrome during adolescence. It may occur in […]

Traumatic injuries

Children and adolescents are injured more often than adults, but their injuries are usually less serious. This may partly be due to the fact that children are physically smaller than adults, so that less force is involved in the injury. Children’s tissues are significantly different from those of adults: their bone structure is more resilient […]

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral disorders are a common problem in all age groups. The cause of this pain is complex and not well known. It is therefore important to make a precise diagnosis, otherwise the treatment will not be successful.

Etiology Damage to the articular surface of the patella usually occurs in individuals aged 10–25 years, and is […]

Osteochondritis dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans, the detachment of fragments of bone and cartilage into the knee joint, often afflicts young people aged 12–16 years, permanently affecting the articular surface of the femur. The location of the injury is often obvious. The condition causes the cartilage and bone to disintegrate in an area which may be as large as […]