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In-Toeing in Children

In-Toeing and Out-Toeing

In-Toeing and Out-Toeing

What is in-toeing?

Most people’s feet point straight ahead or slightly outward. Some people’s feet, however, point inward a musculoskeletal condition referred to as in-toeing. In-toeing affects infants and children and is characterized by an inwardly rotated foot or feet, or, less often, an outwardly rotated foot or feet […]

A Patient’s Guide to Hip Arthroscopy

Hip Arthroscopy

Hip Arthroscopy

A hip arthroscopy is a procedure where a small video camera attached to a fiberoptic lens is inserted into the hip joint to allow a surgeon to see without making a large incision. Arthroscopy is now used to evaluate and treat orthopedic problems in many different joints of the body. While […]

Total Knee Replacement

Your Total Knee Surgery

There are several ways to treat the pain caused by arthritis. One way is total knee replacement surgery. The decision to have total knee replacement surgery should be made very carefully after consulting your doctor and learning as much as you can about the knee joint, arthritis, and the surgery.

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Synovial thickening

Synovial thickening is a vital c1inkal finding. It indicates primary inflammation of the synovia and differentiates this from a secondary synovitis.Synovial swelling is best detected at the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, about 2 cm posterior to the medial and lateral edges of the patella.

Here the capsule lies almost superficially,covered only by […]

PASSIVE TESTS-Passive flexion

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with extended legs. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the distal part of the leg, just proximal to the malleoli; the other hand grasps the knee at the medial femoral condyle.

Procedure.

Move the extended leg upwards until the knee can […]

Knee-Bony landmarks

All palpable bony parts of the knee are situated anteriorly. Palpation is performed with the subject in the supine lying position. The knee is either bent to a right angle or fully extended,depending on the palpated structure. In a flexed position of the knee, the patella can easily be outlined. In this position the large […]

Traumatic injuries

Children and adolescents are injured more often than adults, but their injuries are usually less serious. This may partly be due to the fact that children are physically smaller than adults, so that less force is involved in the injury. Children’s tissues are significantly different from those of adults: their bone structure is more resilient […]

Posterior cruciate ligament injuries

PCL tears of the knee are not very common; they constitute only 5-10% of all major knee ligament tears.

Anatomy The PCL has an average width of 0.5 in (13 mm) and length of 1.5 in (38 mm). It is fan-shaped, being narrowest in the midportion and fanning out superiorly and, to a lesser extent, […]

Neck Protection

Serious injuries to the neck can be prevented by neck protection.

Shoulder padding

Shoulder padding is used by ice hockey, American football and lacrosse players, and in motor racing. Similar padding could probably also be used in other sports such as riding, cycling, alpine skiing, and ski-jumping, in which injuries to the shoulder area often […]

Hemorrhagic Bursitis

The usual cause of bleeding into a bursa is a direct impact such as a fall. It may also be caused indirectly by tendon rupture or by bleeding within a joint to which the bursa is connected. Blood within the bursa causes chemical irritation, and in severe cases, may clot and cause adhesion of connective […]