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Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Quadratus Lumborum

The quadratus lumborum consists of medial and lateral fibers that are enclosed by the anterior and middle layers of the thoracolumbar fascia. The medial fibers attach “from the ilium to the anterior surface of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and other fibers travel from the transverse processes to anchor onto the twelfth rib.

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Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Internal Oblique

The internal oblique is the largest muscle of the abdominal wall . The internal oblique forms the middle layer of the abdominal wall between the TrA and the external oblique. It originates from the “lateral two-thirds of the inguinal ligament, anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest, and the lateral raphe of the thoracolumbar fascia in […]

Collagen Cross-Links

Stabilization of collagen occurs extracellularly, after its assembly into the quarter-stagger arrays that make up filaments, fibrils, and fibers. The stabilization and ultimate tensile strength of the fiber structure are thought to result mainly from the development of intramolecular and intermolecular cross-links.

The former occur between α chains of the individual tropocollagen molecule and the […]

Meniscal Motion

As the knee passes through a range of motion, the menisci move with respect to the tibial articular surface. A classic study demonstrated that from 0 degrees to 120 degrees of knee flexion the mean meniscal excursion (defined as the average anteroposterior displacement of the anterior and posterior meniscal horns along the tibial plateau in […]

Medial collateral ligament injuries

Medial collateral ligament injuries The MCL is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee. The incidence is probably higher than reported, because many minor MCL injuries are never seen by physicians. The treatment of these injuries has changed; in the 1970s surgical treatment was common, but today most MCL injuries are treated conservatively, with […]

Ligament injuries

Ligament injuries in athletes are common, particularly around the knee and the ankle. They also occur in the shoulder, elbow, and thumb

Functional anatomy

Ligaments are attached to the two bones that compose the joint . Ligaments provide stability to the joint, while still allowing motion. They cannot actively resist motion, but provide a ‘check […]

Tennis Elbow or Lateral Humeral Epicondylitis

WHAT IS TENNIS ELBOW OR LATERAL HUMERAL EPICONDYLITIS?

Tennis elbow is characterized by soreness or pain on the outside of the upper arm near the elbow. There may be a partial tear of the tendon fibers which joins the muscle to bone near their point of origin on the outside of the elbow.

HOW IS […]