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Valgus movement

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly flexed and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot and grasps the heel between the clasped hands. In order to avoid movements in the ankle joint the talus is stabilized between tibial and fibular malleoli. This is achieved […]

PASSIVE TESTS OF THE SUBTALAR JOINT

Varus movement

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch with the knee slightly flexed and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot and grasps the heel between the clasped hands. In order to avoid movements in the ankle joint the talus is stabilized between tibial and fibular malleoli. This is […]

Passive dorsiflexion

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.

Procedure..

Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

Passive lateral rotation

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the forefoot at the inner side and presses it upwards in dorsiflexion. Place the other shoulder against the knee, the arm […]

Palpation of soft tissues at the medial side

Medial collateral ligament

The medial collateral Hgament is a broad, flat and almost triangular band, with a large insertion on the posterosuperior aspect of the medial femoral epicondyle, dose to the insertion of the adductor magnus tendon. Its fibres run obliquely, anteriorly and inferiorly, to insert at the medial aspect of the tibia, just behind […]

Palpation of the extensor mechanism

This is performed on an extended knee.First the muscular structures are ascertained. Ask the patient to extend the slightly bent knee and resist the movement.This movement usually outlines the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and the patellar ligament. Then the patellar border with its tendinous insertions are palpated. With the hip in flexion and […]

Palpation of the subscapularis tendon

The subscapularis muscle belly can only be reached by bringing the hand in between the scapula and the thorax. It cannot really be palpated. The tendinous insertion on the lesser tuberosity, however, can easily be palpated. The subject is in a half lying position on a couch, the upper arm along the body and the […]

Achilles Tendon Rupture

SYMPTOMS

A sharp sudden pain in the Achilles tendon during activity, often recognised by the patient and people around as a loud snap, followed by the inability to continue. Often the patient believes somebody has hit them over the calf. It is most common in middle-aged recreational athletes in impact sports such as badminton […]