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Passive dorsiflexion

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.

Procedure..

Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

Post-Traumatic Shoulder Stiffness

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual onset of diffuse pain or ache, and stiffness in the shoulder after previous trauma or immobilisation. Physiotherapy, after manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic release, improves the condition dramatically. Secondary problems in the neck and upper back are almost inevitable and must be addressed.

AETIOLOGY

This disorder has similar symptoms to frozen […]

Tarsal Coalition

SYMPTOMS

There is diffuse exercise-induced aching pain around the sub-talar joint, sometimes after previous sprain.

AETIOLOGY

The aetiology is unclear. Sub-talar structures fuse over time by fibrosis or callus formation.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is tenderness on palpation over the sub-talar joint (sinus tarsi), decreased mobility and swelling.

INVESTIGATIONS

X-ray may show talo-navicular coalition; talo-calcaneal coalition […]

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Tarsal tunnel syndrome is entrapment of the tibial nerve or its distal branches caused by compression or traction as the nerve courses through the tarsal tunnel. Anatomy : Proximal tarsal tunnel: Fibro-osseous space that contains (from anterior to posterior) the PTT, flexor digitorum longus tendon, posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve, […]

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Basics Description Shoulder pain with overhead activities is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Impingement syndrome: Inflammatory condition of the soft tissues of the subacromial space Most common cause of presentation for shoulder complaints to a physician’s office (>50% of all shoulder complaints) Represents a continuum, progressing from acute bursitis, to chronic bursitis, to partial-thickness tears […]

Posterior Tibial Tendon Rupture

Basics Description PTT dysfunction or rupture is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. A working knowledge of the anatomy and function of the PTT in the normal foot is necessary to understand the pathophysiology that results from dysfunction. Origin: Posterior aspect of the tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane Course: […]