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Peroneal Tendon Instability , A Rare But Important Ankle Injury

Peroneal Tendon Instability

Ankle sprain is a common injury in Singapore athletes as well as the active adult. Most of the time, the ankle heals with a little care (rest, taping, ice). But one rare complication of lateral ankle sprains is a condition called peroneal tendon instability. A lateral ankle sprain means the side of the ankle away from the other leg is sprained. The two peroneal tendons go down the leg and around the back of the ankle bone. The tendons set down inside a tunnel formed by bone and connective tissue called the retromalleolar groove. A fibrous band (the superior peroneal retinaculum) goes across the tendon to hold them in the groove. […]

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to a symptom complex of upper extremity pain and paresthesias involving compression neurovascular structures (90,91). It has been subdivided into:

(a) vascular (arterial and venous),

(b) true neurological, and

(c) nonspecific or “disputed” neurological categories.

The exact incidences of these categories are unclear. The true neurological TOS is rare and […]


The inguinal fold can easily be identified. It covers the inguinal ligament that can be palpated as a strong fibrous band.The anterior superior iliac spine is located at the craniolatera] end of the fold. This bony prominence forms the point of origin of both the sartorius muscle and the tensor fasciae latae muscles. The spine […]