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Strong varus movement at the ankle

Significance.

This movement tests the integrity of the strong distal tibiofibular ligaments.

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position and the knee extended. The examiner is distal to the foot. The ipSilateral hand fixes the leg at the inner side, just above the ankle. The contralateral hand grasps the foot at the heel.

Procedure.

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Lower leg

Fractures Fractures of the lower leg occur most frequently in alpine skiers but also in crosscountry skiers, riders and participants in contact sports such as American football, soccer, rugby, and ice hockey.In alpine skiing, the injury occurs most frequently in young skiers and there is no difference in incidence by sex. Snow conditions are an […]

Unicameral Bone Cyst

Basics

Description A benign membrane-lined, fluid-filled lesion of bone that develops in childhood and fills in by maturity Location: 80% occur in the proximal humerus and proximal femur. Other, less common, areas are the proximal tibia, distal tibia, distal femur, calcaneus, distal humerus, radius, fibula, ilium, ulna, and rib. Usually centrally located adjacent to the […]

Stress Fracture

Basics Description A stress (microscopic) fracture occurs when: Repetitive stresses are applied to a bone faster than it is able to remodel to withstand this challenge. As the stressing force continues, the bone gradually fatigues and eventually breaks. Remodeling occurs in response to the stress but does not happen quickly enough to prevent the […]

Posterior Tibial Tendon Rupture

Basics Description PTT dysfunction or rupture is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. A working knowledge of the anatomy and function of the PTT in the normal foot is necessary to understand the pathophysiology that results from dysfunction. Origin: Posterior aspect of the tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane Course: […]

Ankle Instability

Basics Description Recurrent ankle sprains occurring primarily from an inversion stress on a plantarflexed ankle, which lead to chronic ankle pain and instability Divided into 2 types: Functional instability: Pain causes ankle to be unstable. Feeling of ankle giving way Neuromuscular deficit True mechanical instability: Frank insufficiency of ligaments Physiologic ROM is exceeded. Positive […]

Ankle Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the distal end of the fibula and tibia are termed ankle fractures. Usually caused by the twisting of the body around a planted foot or a misstep that results in overstressing the ankle joint Severe fractures may result in dislocation of the ankle. 2 fracture classification systems are used currently: […]

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

Basics Description Destructive, painful, lytic bone lesions occurring in young patients May occur primarily in bone (de novo) or develop within another benign bone lesion Can be locally aggressive and can cause a bone to balloon as a result of aneurysmal cystic expansion Occurs most often at the proximal ends of long bones and […]

Accessory Navicular

Basics Description

This anatomic variant consists of an accessory ossicle located at the medial edge of the navicular Accessory ossicles are derived from unfused ossification centers. Considered an incidental finding on radiographs, but may become symptomatic Classification: 3 major types of accessory navicular adjacent to the posteromedial navicular tuberosity Type I: Small, 3-mm sesamoid […]

A Patient’s Guide to Cervical Corpectomy and Strut Graft

Introduction

A corpectomy is surgery to relieve pressure on the spinal cord due to spinal stenosis. In spinal stenosis, bone spurs press against the spinal cord, leading to a condition called myelopathy. This can produce problems with the bowels and bladder and disrupt the way you walk. Fine motor skills of the hand may also […]