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Suture Anchor Technique

Tenodesis with suture anchors was first described by Gartsman and Hammerman and subsequently by Nord et al. Each used suture anchors inserted in different locations to obtain fixation to the proximal humerus or the greater tuberosity. Two suture anchors are inserted through the subclavian portal (Nord) or from the anterior portal (Gartsman). The method described […]


The ability of proteoglycan to contribute to an even larger molecular structure by combining with hyaluronan originally was described by Hardingham and Muir.

Those authors elaborated on the dissociation and association experiments of Sajdera and Hascall to establish the mechanism of formation of the larger molecule, termed proteoglycan aggregate. Much attention has been given to […]

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

Basics Description A pathologic joint entity of localized bone necrosis with overlying cartilage injury Osteochondritis dissecans primarily affects the knee, but it is also seen in the hip (in late Legg-Calve-Perthes disease), elbow, and ankle. Osteochondritis dissecans occurs primarily in the 2nd decade of life, but it also is seen in children and older […]

Ankle Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the distal end of the fibula and tibia are termed ankle fractures. Usually caused by the twisting of the body around a planted foot or a misstep that results in overstressing the ankle joint Severe fractures may result in dislocation of the ankle. 2 fracture classification systems are used currently: […]

A New Look at Shoulder Revision Surgery for Rotator Cuff Tears

With the development of arthroscopic surgery, surgeons have been able to repair rotator cuff tears (RCTs) in the shoulder with minimal trauma to the rest of the shoulder. But sometimes the repair doesn’t hold and the patient retears the tissues. When that happens, is it okay to do the revision (second) surgery arthroscopically? Or should […]