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Biomechanical considerations

The range of movement of a joint is normally limited by the articular surfaces, the ligaments, and the joint capsule, and by the length and flexibility of muscles and tendons. The ligaments and joint capsule are comparatively inelastic and are responsible for maintaining passive stability, while muscles and tendons control active stability.Muscles, tendons, […]


Movement therapy and physical therapy

General exercises are part of the athlete’s warm-up before training sessions and competition and have an essential function in preventing injuries.The role of athletic trainers and physical therapists in sports medicine is one of participation in both prevention and treatment. As far as prevention is concerned each sport has its […]

Injuries to the Suprascapular Nerve

The suprascapular nerve supplies the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. It runs in a groove on the upper edge of the scapula, and is held in the groove by a ligament. The suprascapular nerve can be damaged at the time of forward or backward dislocation of the shoulder joint, with the dislocation stretching the nerve over […]

Injury of the Subscapularis Tendon

Injury of the subscapularis tendon

The subscapularis muscle (which originates on the inner surface of the scapula, runs anterior to the shoulder joint, and is inserted high into the anterior aspect of the head of the humerus) is the most important internal rotator of the upper arm. Its tendon can be affected by partial or […]

Intrinsic Factors

Intrinsic factors, such as degenerative changes within the rotator cuff tendons, are likely to cause problems because of subsequent weakness causing superior migration of the humerus, thus producing a secondary mechanical impingement.


– Grade 1: pretear condition with subacromial bursitis and/or tendinitis. – Grade 2: impingement with partial rotator cuff tears.

Symptoms and diagnosis


Ankle Injuries

Ankle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport. ‘Ankle sprain’ (which is a mechanism rather than a diagnosis) is the most common injury in virtually all epidemiological studies. Being the first part of the kinetic chain to withstand the impact of running, twisting, pushing off and landing, the ankle and foot must, within […]