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Evaluation-Physical Examination

The physical examination of athletes with axillary nerve injury should include evaluation for range of motion (passive and active) as well as strength (abduction, forward elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation). Patients with a chronic history of the problem may demonstrate atrophy or asymmetry of the deltoid muscle mass.

A neurovascular examination should be performed […]


For any significant neck injury, radiography of the cervical spine should be performed, including AP, lateral, bilateral oblique, lateral flexion, and extension views. Imaging may be deferred in cases of recurrent burners in which symptoms resolve, but radiography should be considered for any athlete with first-time symptoms. Radiographs should be evaluated for loss of cervical […]

Clinical Anatomy

Understanding the structure of the cervical spine and the pathoanatomy of characteristic patterns of injury is essential for initial, effective management. Simply stated, the cervical spine supports the head and protects the neural elements; but motion about the cervical spine can be quite complex.

Many agree that distinct regional differences exist between the upper cervical […]

Elbow, wrist and hand

Wrist and hand rehabilitation

Because the function of the wrist and hand is essential to daily activities, special care is needed to avoid compromising the functional integrity of these structures. In addition to range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, attention should be paid to dexterity exercises and to tactile senses. The wrist and hand are a series […]

Injuries affecting the Upper Arm

Overuse injury of the long tendon of the biceps

Overuse injury of the long tendon of the biceps is usually secondary to another shoulder injury such as impingement or instability. The biceps injury is usually of a degenerative nature. Midsubstance degenerative changes in a tendon are referred to as tendinosis. This biceps tendon glides over […]

Turf Toe


There is a gradually increasing stiffness and diffuse aching pain around MTP I. Commonly affects team sports players who wear studded shoes.


Common theories include repetitive minor trauma to the capsule and cartilage of MTP I from ill-fitting shoes, direct impact and playing on hard turf with shoes that get stuck. […]