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Many treatment methods have been described through the years. In general, the choice of the treatment for a proximal humerus fracture should be based on the type of the fracture, presence of concurrent injuries, age and activity level of the patient, the presence and nature of comorbid medical conditions, and potential outcomes of specific treatment […]

Injury Prevention and Education

Instruction and education of athletes, although often overlooked, remain the most crucial elements in preventing cervical spine injuries. The majority of cervical spine injuries occurring in football, as demonstrated by Torg et al.

It happen when the athlete uses an improper tackling technique with the neck in flexion during axial loading. As mentioned previously, rule […]

Force–Velocity Relationship

Shortening velocities are dependent on several independent factors. As discussed earlier, shortening velocity is proportional to fiber length. Shortening velocity also is dependent on the load being placed on the muscle.

Classic studies of muscle physiology have shown that the velocity of muscle shortening is related to the load being moved by the muscle. The […]

Meniscal Function

While the term “shock absorber” has often been used to describe the meniscus, the menisci actually serve many functions in the human knee. Additional functions are theorized to be load bearing, lubrication, and proprioception. The meniscal function of load bearing may be clinically inferred by the degenerative changes that accompany meniscectomy.

Fairbank described radiographic changes […]

Variation of the valgus test

The test can be repeated with the knee in slight flexion (20-30°). Here the thigh rests on the couch and the lower leg hangs over the edge. Positioning of the hands is the same , as is the procedure.[n this position the cruciate ligaments no longer hold both joint surfaces in firm apposition; therefore some […]

Passive extension


The subject lies in the supine position with the legs extended. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the lower leg at the heel, while the other carries the knee from the lateral side with the thumb on the tibial tuberosity.

Procedure. Move the leg upwards. Perform a quick and […]

Resisted flexion of the knee


The subject lies prone with the knee in 30° of flexion. The examiner stands level with the thigh and leans over the subject. One hand is on the ilium, the other presses against the distal end of the lower leg.


Ask the subject to flex the knee, and resist the movement .


PASSIVE TESTS-Passive flexion


The subject lies relaxed in the supine position. The examiner stands level with the hip. Procedure.

Both hands lift the knee upwards towards the subject’s chest until the movement stops. Meanwhile a slight axial pressure is applied on the femur.

Common mistakes:

• Moving the thigh too much laterally towards the shoulder. • Carrying […]


Biceps, semitendinoslis and semimembranosus originate from a common tendon at the inferior aspect of the ischial tuberosity. If the hip is slightly flexed, the gluteus maximus moves upwards, exposing the ischial tuberosity so the tendon can be palpated more easily. A resisted flexion of the knee makes it visible.

SPECIFIC TESTS Phalen’s test = forced flexion of the wrist


This is a compression test for the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. Release of the pressure causes paraesthesia in the territory of the median nerve – 3l-> fingers medially and palmar.


The subject presents the hand.The examiner grasps the distal forearm with the contralateral hand. With the other hand he takes hold […]