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Treatment

Many treatment methods have been described through the years. In general, the choice of the treatment for a proximal humerus fracture should be based on the type of the fracture, presence of concurrent injuries, age and activity level of the patient, the presence and nature of comorbid medical conditions, and potential outcomes of specific treatment […]

Meniscal Function

While the term “shock absorber” has often been used to describe the meniscus, the menisci actually serve many functions in the human knee. Additional functions are theorized to be load bearing, lubrication, and proprioception. The meniscal function of load bearing may be clinically inferred by the degenerative changes that accompany meniscectomy.

Fairbank described radiographic changes […]

Palpation of the popliteal fossa

The borders of the lozenge-shaped popliteal fossa are formed by the gastrocnemii, the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles. The bottom is formed by the posterior capsule and the popliteus muscle .The popliteal fossa is covered by a fascia. The lozenge is vertically crossed (from lateral to medial) by: the tibial nerve, popliteal […]

Resisted flexion of the knee

Positioning.

The subject lies prone with the knee in 30° of flexion. The examiner stands level with the thigh and leans over the subject. One hand is on the ilium, the other presses against the distal end of the lower leg.

Procedure.

Ask the subject to flex the knee, and resist the movement .

[…]

Resisted flexion of each finger separately

Positioning and procedure.

The subject presents his hand palm downwards. The examiner stabilizes the wrist with one hand. With the other hand he applies resistance to the distal phalanx of each finger respectively.

Common mistakes.

None.

Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function:

• Flexor digitorum superficialis • Flexor digitorum profundus.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral disorders are a common problem in all age groups. The cause of this pain is complex and not well known. It is therefore important to make a precise diagnosis, otherwise the treatment will not be successful.

Etiology Damage to the articular surface of the patella usually occurs in individuals aged 10–25 years, and is […]

Medial collateral ligament injuries

Medial collateral ligament injuries The MCL is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee. The incidence is probably higher than reported, because many minor MCL injuries are never seen by physicians. The treatment of these injuries has changed; in the 1970s surgical treatment was common, but today most MCL injuries are treated conservatively, with […]

Ligaments and Injuries

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries ACL injuries of the knee are the most common injuries to the knee; the loss of an ACL not only produces abnormal kinematics but also frequently results in major degenerative changes in the knee.

Anatomy The human ACL is a complex structure at every level. The ligament is designed to act […]

Fracture of the Lower End of the Humerus (Supracondylar Fracture)

Children often sustain fractures of the lower part of the humerus because of falls from gymnasium apparatus, and in riding or cycling falls.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Intense pain is felt during arm movements. – There is tenderness on pressure. – Swelling and bruising are noticeable. – Contour changes.

Treatment

The injured person should be […]

Fractures and Dislocations

Dislocation

Dislocation of the elbow joint occurs mainly in athletes participating in contact sports, such as football, rugby, and ice hockey, but can also occur in riders, cyclists, wrestlers, skiers, and squash players. A common cause of this injury is falling on the hand with a bent elbow. A similar injury can occur if the […]