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Ankle Fractures in Singapore

The ankle is the joint between the lower leg and the foot. The weight of the body goes through this joint when we walk and more than one body-weight when we run or jump.

In addition the ankle serves to control gait (how you walk) and to balance us while we stand. It is an […]

Prescription Sports


Running is one of the most popular sports in the world. This not only covers marathons and track and field running – running is also part of the training in virtually all other sports, including soccer, rugby, handball and triathlon. Running is a very efficient method for maintaining or improving […]

Tibial Torsion

Basics Description A condition in which the tibia, along with the ankle and foot, is rotated internally or externally (i.e., inward or outward) on its axis (Fig. 1) This rotation is seen in the course of normal development, but on occasion it may represent a developmental abnormality. Abnormal values usually are described as >2 […]

Septic Arthritis of the Foot

Basics Description Septic arthritis is a bacterial or fungal infection of the joints of the foot. General Prevention Appropriate shoe wear and avoidance of going barefoot to prevent puncture wounds Treatment of diabetic or neuropathic ulcers Risk Factors Previous joint trauma or arthritis Inflammatory arthropathy Diabetes or immunocompromise Skin disease Peripheral vascular disease Intravenous […]

Puncture Wounds of the Foot

Basics Description Puncture injuries of the foot typically occur on the plantar surface of the forefoot or heel. The injuring object usually is a nail, needle, or pin, but it can be anything that punctures the soft tissue, including thorns, glass, and splinters. Classification: Early presentation: Day of injury Late presentation: At least 3-5 […]

Posteromedial Bow of the Tibia

Basics Description Posteromedial bowing of the tibia is an angulation of the lower leg noticed at birth. The foot typically is in a calcaneovalgus position. The angulation of leg is secondary to a deformity in the tibia. In most children, the angle gradually corrects itself during growth. The limb-length discrepancy persists and increases proportionately […]

Posterior Tibial Tendon Rupture

Basics Description PTT dysfunction or rupture is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. A working knowledge of the anatomy and function of the PTT in the normal foot is necessary to understand the pathophysiology that results from dysfunction. Origin: Posterior aspect of the tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane Course: […]

Metatarsal Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the forefoot: Classification: Metatarsal head, neck, or shaft fractures Stress fractures most commonly involve the 2nd metatarsal and result from repetitive overuse. 5th metatarsal fractures can be subdivided: Avulsion fractures, which are proximal to the metaphysis (called pseudo-Jones fractures when the 5th metatarsal is involved) Jones fractures are fractures of […]


Basics Description Macrodactyly is overgrowth of 1 or several adjacent digits or rays of a hand or foot that produces the appearance of localized gigantism. Virtually all cases are present at birth, although some cases worsen disproportionately. Growth of the enlarged digits ceases when the patient reaches skeletal maturity. Classification: Static: Enlargement remains proportionate […]

Lisfranc Fracture-Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the TMT joints of the foot. Can occur at any age Often accompanied by fractures around the TMT joints Classification: Type A: Total incongruity of TMT joint Type B: Partial incongruity of TMT joint complex, either medial or lateral Type C: Divergent (1st metatarsal medial, 2nd-5th lateral) Epidemiology Incidence Lisfranc […]