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Prescription Sports

RUNNING ON A HARD SURFACE

Running is one of the most popular sports in the world. This not only covers marathons and track and field running – running is also part of the training in virtually all other sports, including soccer, rugby, handball and triathlon. Running is a very efficient method for maintaining or improving […]

Puncture Wounds of the Foot

Basics Description Puncture injuries of the foot typically occur on the plantar surface of the forefoot or heel. The injuring object usually is a nail, needle, or pin, but it can be anything that punctures the soft tissue, including thorns, glass, and splinters. Classification: Early presentation: Day of injury Late presentation: At least 3-5 […]

Posteromedial Bow of the Tibia

Basics Description Posteromedial bowing of the tibia is an angulation of the lower leg noticed at birth. The foot typically is in a calcaneovalgus position. The angulation of leg is secondary to a deformity in the tibia. In most children, the angle gradually corrects itself during growth. The limb-length discrepancy persists and increases proportionately […]

Posterior Tibial Tendon Rupture

Basics Description PTT dysfunction or rupture is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. A working knowledge of the anatomy and function of the PTT in the normal foot is necessary to understand the pathophysiology that results from dysfunction. Origin: Posterior aspect of the tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane Course: […]

Lisfranc Fracture-Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the TMT joints of the foot. Can occur at any age Often accompanied by fractures around the TMT joints Classification: Type A: Total incongruity of TMT joint Type B: Partial incongruity of TMT joint complex, either medial or lateral Type C: Divergent (1st metatarsal medial, 2nd-5th lateral) Epidemiology Incidence Lisfranc […]

Jones Fracture

Basics Description Fracture of the base of the 5th metatarsal of the foot Injuries may be acute or stress fractures. Classification is by location of the fracture. Tuberosity avulsion fracture: No involvement of the 4th to 5th intermetatarsal joint True Jones fracture: Proximal metaphyseal fracture with involvement of the 4th to 5th intermetatarsal joint […]

Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis)

Basics Description Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of plantar heel pain. Other causes include: Compression of the 1st branch of the LPN Fat pad atrophy of the heel Pain and enthesopathy associated with seronegative spondyloarthropathies Tarsal tunnel syndrome Calcaneal stress fracture Geriatric Considerations Plantar heel pain in geriatric patients often is secondary […]

Friedreich Ataxia

Basics Description Friedreich ataxia is an uncommon, heritable disorder causing progressive spinocerebellar degeneration. Scoliosis, ataxia, and foot deformities are the most common findings. Systems affected: Central nervous system; Heart; Skeleton Classification: No subclassifications are used in Friedreich ataxia. It is classified under the category spinocerebellar degeneration, and it is the most common example of […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Femoral Shaft Fracture in the Adult

Basics Description Femoral shaft fractures occur in the diaphysis of the bone. High-energy trauma such as vehicular accidents, falls, or gunshots are the common causes of these fractures in normal bone. Low-energy trauma may cause femoral shaft fractures in pathologic or osteoporotic bone. Classification: Winquist and Hansen assessed fractures according to the proportion of […]