Specialists

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Puncture Wounds of the Foot

Basics Description Puncture injuries of the foot typically occur on the plantar surface of the forefoot or heel. The injuring object usually is a nail, needle, or pin, but it can be anything that punctures the soft tissue, including thorns, glass, and splinters. Classification: Early presentation: Day of injury Late presentation: At least 3-5 […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Clubfoot

Basics Description Clubfoot, or talipes equinovarus, is a complex deformity seen at birth. It can be divided into 3 elements: Equinus of the heel Varus and internal rotation of the hindfoot Adductus of the forefoot Equinus (horse) is used to describe a plantarflexed position because horses walk with their heels in complete plantarflexion, and […]

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

Basics Description Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the most common hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. Involvement progresses from distal to proximal: Lower extremity wasting, weakness, and cavovarus feet develop, followed in some cases by upper extremity weakness. 5 recognized types: Type I (hypertrophic form): The most common form (50% of patients) Thickened nerves have abnormal myelin […]

Ankle Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the distal end of the fibula and tibia are termed ankle fractures. Usually caused by the twisting of the body around a planted foot or a misstep that results in overstressing the ankle joint Severe fractures may result in dislocation of the ankle. 2 fracture classification systems are used currently: […]

Prolotherapy Therapy with Platelet Rich Plasma

Tendons and ligaments connect muscles to bones, making it possible to do all kinds of physical activities. Overuse or damage to tendons over a long period of time causes the collagen fibers that make up the tendons to form small tears, a condition called Tendinosis. Ligaments are composed of collagen fibers and hold bones together, […]

A Patient’s Guide to Sesamoid Problems

Introduction

Two pea-sized bones, called sesamoids, are embedded within the soft tissues under the main joint of the big toe. Even though they are small in size, the sesamoids play an important role in how the foot and big toe work. If the sesamoids are injured, they can be a source of severe pain and […]

A Patient’s Guide to Posterior Tibial Tendon Problems

Introduction

Because we use our feet continuously, tendonitis in the foot is a common problem. One of the most frequently affected tendons is the posterior tibial tendon.

This guide will help you understand

how posterior tendonitis develops how the condition causes problems what can be done to treat it

Anatomy

Where is the posterior tibial […]

A Patient’s Guide to Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Talus

Introduction

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a problem that causes pain and stiffness of the ankle joint. It can occur in all age groups. Most cases of OCD usually follow a twisting injury to the ankle and are actually fractures of the joint surface.

This guide will help you understand

how OCD develops how the condition […]

A Patient’s Guide to Hallux Rigidus

Introduction

Hallux rigidus is a degenerative type of arthritis that affects the large joint at the base of the big toe. Degenerative arthritis results from wear and tear on the joint surface over time. The condition may follow an injury to the joint or, in some cases, may arise without a well-defined injury.

This guide […]