Specialists

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SPECIFIC TESTS

Combined plantar flexion-inversion Significance.

This movement brings all the lateral structures of ankle and foot under stretch and is therefore an extremely important test in sprained ankles.

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly flexed and the ankle is in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot. […]

Valgus movement

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly flexed and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot and grasps the heel between the clasped hands. In order to avoid movements in the ankle joint the talus is stabilized between tibial and fibular malleoli. This is achieved […]

Passive dorsiflexion

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.

Procedure..

Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

Resisted lateral rotation

Positioning.

The subject sits with the lower legs pendent. The examiner squats in front of the knee. The ipsilateral hand is placed against the lateral aspect of the forefoot and maintains dorsiflexion. The contralateral hand encircles the heel from the medial side.

Procedure.

The patient is asked to turn the foot outwards while the examiner […]

Resisted medial rotation

Positioning.

The subject sits with the lower legs pendent. The examiner squats in front of the knee. The ipsilateral hand encircles the heel from the lateral side. The contralateral hand is placed against the medial aspect of the forefoot and holds the foot in dorsiflexion .

Procedure.

The subject is asked to turn the […]

Passive lateral rotation

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the forefoot at the inner side and presses it upwards in dorsiflexion. Place the other shoulder against the knee, the arm […]

Stress Fracture of Posterior Tibia

SYMPTOMS

Gradual onset of localised exercise induced pain at the posterior medial aspect of the tibia. This injury is common in young or adolescent athletes. It typically occurs as a result of sudden changes in training habits, such as increase in intensity or amount of impact.

AETIOLOGY

This is a non-tension-side stress fracture, caused […]

Stress Fracture of Fibula

SYMPTOMS

Gradual onset of localised exercise induced pain on fibula. This injury is common in young athletes but less common than tibia stress fractures. It typically occurs as a result of sudden changes in training habits, such as increase in intensity or amount of impact.

AETIOLOGY

This stress fracture is caused by excessive jumping or […]

Sesam Bone Stress Fractures

SYMPTOMS

There is gradually increasing exerciseinduced pain and swelling around and below MTP I or diffuse pain in the forefoot on forefoot landings and running.

AETIOLOGY

This injury is usually caused by excessive direct impact from landing on the forefoot on hard surfaces.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is distinct tenderness on palpation over the medial or […]

Plantar Fasciitis

SYMPTOMS

There is increasing sharp or aching localised pain around the insertion of the plantar fascia at the anterior inferior part of the calcaneus, without preceding trauma. This condition commonly occurs in middle-aged athletes who run or jump repeatedly on the forefoot but is also common in manual orkers who stand on hard surfaces in […]