Specialists

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SPECIFIC TESTS

Combined plantar flexion-inversion Significance.

This movement brings all the lateral structures of ankle and foot under stretch and is therefore an extremely important test in sprained ankles.

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly flexed and the ankle is in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot. […]

Passive dorsiflexion

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.

Procedure..

Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

Stress Fracture of Posterior Tibia

SYMPTOMS

Gradual onset of localised exercise induced pain at the posterior medial aspect of the tibia. This injury is common in young or adolescent athletes. It typically occurs as a result of sudden changes in training habits, such as increase in intensity or amount of impact.

AETIOLOGY

This is a non-tension-side stress fracture, caused […]

Stress Fracture of Fibula

SYMPTOMS

Gradual onset of localised exercise induced pain on fibula. This injury is common in young athletes but less common than tibia stress fractures. It typically occurs as a result of sudden changes in training habits, such as increase in intensity or amount of impact.

AETIOLOGY

This stress fracture is caused by excessive jumping or […]

Sesam Bone Stress Fractures

SYMPTOMS

There is gradually increasing exerciseinduced pain and swelling around and below MTP I or diffuse pain in the forefoot on forefoot landings and running.

AETIOLOGY

This injury is usually caused by excessive direct impact from landing on the forefoot on hard surfaces.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is distinct tenderness on palpation over the medial or […]

Plantar Fasciitis

SYMPTOMS

There is increasing sharp or aching localised pain around the insertion of the plantar fascia at the anterior inferior part of the calcaneus, without preceding trauma. This condition commonly occurs in middle-aged athletes who run or jump repeatedly on the forefoot but is also common in manual orkers who stand on hard surfaces in […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Ankle Instability

Basics Description Recurrent ankle sprains occurring primarily from an inversion stress on a plantarflexed ankle, which lead to chronic ankle pain and instability Divided into 2 types: Functional instability: Pain causes ankle to be unstable. Feeling of ankle giving way Neuromuscular deficit True mechanical instability: Frank insufficiency of ligaments Physiologic ROM is exceeded. Positive […]

A Patient’s Guide to Interdigital Neuroma

Introduction

Interdigital neuroma (sometimes called a Morton’s neuroma) is the medical term for a painful growth in the forefoot. The pain is most commonly felt between the third and fourth toes but can also occur in the area between the second and third toes. The exact cause of this problem is not clear. Some studies […]