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FUNCTIONAL EXAMINATION OF THE ELBOW

PASSIVE TESTS

Passive flexion

Positioning. The subject stands with the arm outstretched. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm. He places one hand against the back of the shoulder and grasps the distal forearm with the other hand.

Procedure. Bring the hand towards the shoulder,thereby stabilizing the latter, until the movement comes to a […]

Ligaments and Injuries

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries ACL injuries of the knee are the most common injuries to the knee; the loss of an ACL not only produces abnormal kinematics but also frequently results in major degenerative changes in the knee.

Anatomy The human ACL is a complex structure at every level. The ligament is designed to act […]