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Complete Tendon Rupture

Complete tendon rupture (third-degree strain) often occurs in a degenerative tendon and is especially common in older athletes who return to sport after some years’ absence from training. These ruptures afflict badminton players in particular, and also participants in tennis, team handball, basketball, rugby, American football, and soccer, as well as long-jumpers, high-jumpers, and runners


Pectoralis Muscle Rupture


Sudden onset of localised pain in the anterior part of the shoulder and upper arm after excessive abduction and external rotation such as in a rugby tackle. There is weakness on internal rotation and forward flexion.


The pectoralis muscle insertion at the upper humerus or muscle bulk can rupture partially or completely.


Biceps Tendon Rupture


There is acute onset of pain over the anterior part of the shoulder with a lump typically forming at the mid-biceps from the retracted muscle bulk (the ‘Popeye sign’). Usually the biceps longus tendon, originating from the anterior superior labrum, ruptures and the short biceps tendon originating at the coracoid is intact. This […]

Ankle Injuries

Ankle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport. ‘Ankle sprain’ (which is a mechanism rather than a diagnosis) is the most common injury in virtually all epidemiological studies. Being the first part of the kinetic chain to withstand the impact of running, twisting, pushing off and landing, the ankle and foot must, within […]