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Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The spine is a complex system composed of bony elements, articulations, ligaments, muscles, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves divided into anterior, middle, and posterior columns. The vertebral body, lamina, and the spinous process protect the spinal cord. The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae and 5 nerve roots. Most lumbar spines have a […]

Hip Replacement

Basics Description Many forms of arthritis lead to destruction of the articular cartilage of the hip joint, resulting in pain and loss of function. End-stage arthritis can be treated with surgical replacement of the joint. Elderly patients may have a greater risk of cardiac complications and more associated medical problems than younger patients. Patients […]