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Superior Glenohumeral Ligament

The SGHL originates on the supraglenoid tubercle, just anterior to the origin of the long head of the biceps, and it inserts on the proximal tip of the lesser tuberosity, on the medial ridge of the intertubercular groove. The SGHL is present in more than 90% of individuals. In an anatomical study, Steinbeck et al. […]

Glenoid Labrum

The glenoid labrum provides another static restraint to GH motion. The labrum is a fibrous ring attached to the glenoid articular surface through a fibrocartilagenous transition zone. The labrum functions as an anchor point for the GH ligaments and the biceps tendon; it also deepens the glenoid socket and enhances stability.

This wedge-shaped, fibrous structure […]

Shoulder Anatomy and Biomechanics

Key Points

The shoulder complex is composed of three bones—the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus—as well as four articulations—the acromioclavicular (AC), the sternoclavicular (SC), the scapulothoracic, and the glenohumeral (GH) joints. The clavicle serves a variety of functions. It acts as a rigid base for muscular attachments of the shoulder, neck, and chest. It […]

Passive tests-Passive glenohumeral abduction

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body. The examiner stands level with and behind the subject’s arm. One hand takes hold of the elbow, just above the joint.The thumb of the other hand is placed against the lateral aspect of the lower angle of the scapula.

Procedure.

Abduct the arm […]

Passive tests-Passive internal rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm and stabilizes the elbow with his trunk. One hand is placed on the opposite shoulder to stabilize the shoulder girdle and trunk; the other takes hold of […]

PASSIVE TESTS-Passive external rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm and stabilizes the elbow with his trunk. One hand is placed on the contralateral shoulder to stabilize the shoulder girdle and trunk; the other takes hold of the […]

Shoulder and Upper Arm

Shoulder motion

Shoulder motion is guided by the integrated motion of several joints such as the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic, and glenohumeral joints. – The glenohumeral joint is the main shoulder joint, comprising the head (ball) of the humerus and the glenoid (socket) of the scapula (shoulder blade). The surrounding capsule is loosely applied and allows […]

Slap Tear

SYMPTOMS

There is sharp impingement-type shoulder pain and weakness when trying to perform specific overhead activities, such as throwing a ball or serving in tennis.

AETIOLOGY

The SLAP ligament (Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior) is the superior part of the glenoid labrum. Besides stabilising and centring the humeral head to the glenoid, it […]

Shoulder Instability

Basics Description Because of the shoulder’s extensive ROM, it is prone to instability. The term encompasses a spectrum of disorders of varying degree, direction, and cause. Instability should be distinguished from laxity. Laxity is the symmetric translation of the humeral head over the surface of the glenoid without symptoms. Instability occurs when the degree […]

Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]