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Passive tests-Passive glenohumeral abduction

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body. The examiner stands level with and behind the subject’s arm. One hand takes hold of the elbow, just above the joint.The thumb of the other hand is placed against the lateral aspect of the lower angle of the scapula.

Procedure.

Abduct the arm […]

Shoulder and Upper Arm

Shoulder motion

Shoulder motion is guided by the integrated motion of several joints such as the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic, and glenohumeral joints. – The glenohumeral joint is the main shoulder joint, comprising the head (ball) of the humerus and the glenoid (socket) of the scapula (shoulder blade). The surrounding capsule is loosely applied and allows […]

Slap Tear

SYMPTOMS

There is sharp impingement-type shoulder pain and weakness when trying to perform specific overhead activities, such as throwing a ball or serving in tennis.

AETIOLOGY

The SLAP ligament (Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior) is the superior part of the glenoid labrum. Besides stabilising and centring the humeral head to the glenoid, it […]

Shoulder Instability

Basics Description Because of the shoulder’s extensive ROM, it is prone to instability. The term encompasses a spectrum of disorders of varying degree, direction, and cause. Instability should be distinguished from laxity. Laxity is the symmetric translation of the humeral head over the surface of the glenoid without symptoms. Instability occurs when the degree […]

Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]