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Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Claw Toes

Basics Description The term claw toes describes a hyperextension deformity of the MTP joint of the lesser toes with flexion deformity of the PIP joint . General Prevention Use of appropriate shoe wear (wide shoes with a high toe box) can prevent the development of claw toes in many cases. Epidemiology Incidence Increases with […]

Bunion/Hallux Valgus

Basics Description A bunion is an enlargement of the medial eminence of the 1st metatarsal with soft tissue and bursal swelling. Hallux valgus occurs primarily at the MTP joint and consists of lateral deviation of the great toe with medial deviation of the 1st metatarsal. Subluxation of the MTP joint often occurs. General Prevention […]