Specialists

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Strong varus movement at the ankle

Significance.

This movement tests the integrity of the strong distal tibiofibular ligaments.

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position and the knee extended. The examiner is distal to the foot. The ipSilateral hand fixes the leg at the inner side, just above the ankle. The contralateral hand grasps the foot at the heel.

Procedure.

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Passive medial rotation

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee and hip flexed to right angles. The examiner stands level with the subject’S knee.One forearm carries the lower leg. The other hand grasps the calcaneus from the lateral side.Both hands clasp tightly under the heel which is forced into dorsiflexion.

Procedure.

A combined movement […]

Passive lateral rotation

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the forefoot at the inner side and presses it upwards in dorsiflexion. Place the other shoulder against the knee, the arm […]

Passive extension

Positioning..

The subject lies in the supine position with the legs extended. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the lower leg at the heel, while the other carries the knee from the lateral side with the thumb on the tibial tuberosity.

Procedure. Move the leg upwards. Perform a quick and […]

PASSIVE TESTS-Passive flexion

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with extended legs. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the distal part of the leg, just proximal to the malleoli; the other hand grasps the knee at the medial femoral condyle.

Procedure.

Move the extended leg upwards until the knee can […]

Passive extension

Positioning.

The subject lies prone with the hip extended. The examiner stands level with the hip. One hand is placed on the thigh, just below the gluteal fold. The other hand grasps the thigh just proximal to the patella.

Procedure.

Lift the knee off the couch until the movement comes to a stop. […]

Passive abduction

POSitioning.

The subject lies in the supine position,near the border of the couch, with the lower leg pendent. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hip. One hand grasps the distal thigh from the medial side. The other hand is placed on the opposite anterior superior iliac spine in order to stabilize the pelvis.

Procedure. […]

Fin kelstein’s test

Significance.

This test is meant to confirm the presence of de Quervain’s disease. It should be more painful than the ulnar deviation test.

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow flexed to a right angle and the forearm pronated. The examiner stands next to the subject. The contralateral hand carries […]

Grind test for the trapezium-first metacarpal joint

Significance.

This test is meant to detect crepitus as a symptom indicating arthrosis.

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow 90° flexed. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hand. The contralateral hand grasps and stabilizes the wrist. The other hand takes hold of the distal part of the first […]

Muscles controlling the wrist

As most muscles take their origin at the elbow and overrun it, the subject’s elbow should always be held in extension to put maximal stress on these structures. All movements are executed with the wrist held in the neutral position:

• halfway between flexion and extension • halfway between radial and ulnar deviation.

The positioning […]