Specialists

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Tibial Spine Avulsion Fracture

SYMPTOMS

This injury is caused by a sprain and prevents continuation of sport in a young growing athlete usually below or just above 15 years of age. The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis, which is caused by bleeding from the bone, and pain. This is an injury that is not uncommon in contact sports such […]

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (PCL)

SYMPTOMS

Immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the knee after a sudden hyper-flexion or hyperextension sprain or direct tackle. It is common in contact sports such as football and rugby and other high-intensity sports.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers a hyperextension or valgus rotation sprain during sport or after a direct impact to the […]

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the medial part of the knee. If only the external portion is ruptured there will be superficial bruising rather than haemarthrosis. This is an injury common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high-intensity sports. The MCL ruptures during an excessive valgus sprain and […]

Lateral Collateral Ligament Tear (LCL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the lateral part of the knee. This injury is common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high-intensity sports. LCL ruptures occur during a varus sprain and cause an inability to continue sport. The forces involved are high; since the lateral knee structures are […]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (ACL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are pain and immediate haemarthrosis, caused by bleeding from the ruptured ligament. This is an injury common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high intensity sports such as downhill skiing. There is often a ‘pop’ sound from the knee and an inability to continue.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers […]