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Talus Fracture

Basics Description The talus, a small bone in the hindfoot: Articulates with the calcaneus and the remainder of the midfoot bones Supports the body’s weight and distributes the body’s forces to the foot Is critical to proper function of the foot Is covered (~60%) with articular cartilage Is vascularly supplied by vessels through a […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Ankle Sprain

Basics Description Acute sprains of the lateral ligaments about the ankle are the most common injury in sports and also occur commonly in the general population. Most commonly a partial tear or complete rupture of the ATFL occurs. More severe injuries include the CFL . Lateral ankle sprain results from an inversion mechanism. Classification […]

Ankle Instability

Basics Description Recurrent ankle sprains occurring primarily from an inversion stress on a plantarflexed ankle, which lead to chronic ankle pain and instability Divided into 2 types: Functional instability: Pain causes ankle to be unstable. Feeling of ankle giving way Neuromuscular deficit True mechanical instability: Frank insufficiency of ligaments Physiologic ROM is exceeded. Positive […]

A Patient’s Guide to Adult-Acquired Flatfoot Deformity

Introduction

Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is a painful condition resulting from the collapse of the longitudinal (lengthwise) arch of the foot. As the name suggests, this condition is not present at birth or during childhood. It occurs after the skeleton is fully matured.

In the past it was referred to a posterior tibial tendon […]

A Patient’s Guide to Congenital Flatfoot (Pes Planus) in Children

Introduction

Flatfeet (also known as pes planus) describes a condition in which the longitudinal (lengthwise) and/or medial (crosswise) arches of the foot are dropped down or flat. The entire bottom of the bare foot is in contact with the floor or ground surface during standing, walking, and other weight bearing activities. The condition is often […]